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Table 3 Association between malaria control and micro-economic outcomes using OLS with cluster robust standard errors

From: Exploring the use of routinely-available, retrospective data to study the association between malaria control scale-up and micro-economic outcomes in Zambia

  Total household spending in 2010 (log) Total food spending in 2010 (log) Total food spending in 2010 (log) (no outliers) Percent of school-age children in school in 2010 Average years of education among school age or older
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Per cent of households owning ITN or were sprayed (2010) 0.00 −0.86 0.09 −1.11* 0.01 −0.72 0.07 0.26** 0.78* 2.83***
(0.28) (0.58) (0.31) (0.64) (0.22) (0.47) (0.06) (0.11) (0.46) (0.72)
Phase 2 provinces   −0.53   −0.77*   −0.53*   0.14*   1.33*
  (0.42)   (0.45)   (0.31)   (0.08)   (0.71)
Phase 3 provinces   0.44   0.07   0.07   0.09   1.72*
  (0.61)   (0.61)   (0.40)   (0.11)   (1.02)
Phase 2 provinces X% of households owning ITN and/or houses sprayed (2010)   1.37*   1.73**   1.08**   −0.25**   −2.34***
  (0.70)   (0.77)   (0.49)   (0.11)   (0.88)
Phase 3 provinces X% of households owning ITN and/or houses sprayed (2010)   0.39   0.88   0.56   −0.12   −2.50*
  (0.79)   (0.81)   (0.52)   (0.13)   (1.29)
Constant 10.47*** 12.61*** 10.06*** 12.45*** 11.85*** 13.14*** −0.28 −0.68 4.11 1.52
(2.69) (2.45) (2.83) (2.50) (2.13) (1.88) (0.58) (0.57) (5.34) (4.81)
District level control variables X X X X X X X X X X
Observations 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72 72
R-squared 0.774 0.836 0.631 0.736 0.739 0.803 0.626 0.685 0.887 0.905
Mean of dependent variable 13.313 13.313 12.896 12.896 12.851 12.851 0.651 0.651 4.724 4.724
  1. Phase 1 is a dummy variable for provinces that were targeted with malaria control scale-up in 2006; these includes Western, North Western, Lusaka, Southern and Luapula. Phase 2 is a dummy for provinces targeted in 2007; these include Northern, Eastern, Southern, and North Western. Phase 3 is a dummy for provinces targeted in 2008; these include Copperbelt, Central, and Lusaka. Phase 1 is the omitted category. The interaction term between Phase 2 and per cent of households owning ITN and/or houses sprayed can be interpreted in two ways: (1) the marginal effect of increasing household ownership of ITNs and/or receipt of IRS by 1% point on micro-economic outcome for districts in Phase 2 provinces, compared to those districts in Phase 2 provinces with 0% household ownership of ITN and/or IRS receipt; or, (2) for a given level of ITN ownership and/or receipt of IRS, the marginal difference in micro-economic outcome between districts in Phase 2 provinces relative to districts in Phase 1 provinces. Each of the specifications includes control variables using 2006 baseline data. They include: number of outpatient malaria visits, malaria parasite infection prevalence for children <5 years old, level of rainfall, elevation, number of children ≤18 years in household, number of children ≤5 years in household, household size, per cent of rural households, percent of household heads who have at least completed primary education, per cent of households with primary employment in different sectors, and the baseline equivalent of the outcome variable
  2. * Significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%