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Table 5 Association between malaria control and micro-economic outcomes—fixed effects analysis

From: Exploring the use of routinely-available, retrospective data to study the association between malaria control scale-up and micro-economic outcomes in Zambia

  Total household spending (log) (no outliers) Total food spending (log) (no outliers) Percent of school-age children in school Average years of education among school age or older
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Endline dummy 0.00 0.23 −0.05 −0.77
(0.34) (0.29) (0.10) (0.87)
Per cent of households owning ITN and/or houses sprayed 0.08 −0.06 0.02 −0.28
(0.41) (0.34) (0.09) (0.63)
Interaction between endline dummy and per cent of households owning ITN and/or houses sprayed 0.08 0.03 0.13 1.01
(0.48) (0.42) (0.16) (1.38)
Constant 13.34*** 12.81*** 0.16 4.79
(2.52) (1.94) (0.67) (5.13)
District fixed effects X X X X
District level control variables X X X X
Observations 144 144 144 144
R-squared 0.907 0.890 0.803 0.949
Mean of dependent variable 13.245 12.715 0.644 4.655
  1. See Table 4 for an explanation for all the variables in this analysis. From that list of variables, the authors excluded district level controls variables that are time-invariant including elevation and dummy variables for provinces that were targeted with malaria control scale. The authors used Efron cluster robust standard errors to account for the fact that the outcomes measures are drawn from a sample not intended to be representative at the district level
  2. * Significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%