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Table 1 Description of the studies included in the review

From: Towards eliminating malaria in high endemic countries: the roles of community health workers and related cadres and their challenges in integrated community case management for malaria: a systematic review

No Citation Country Study design Intervention Cadre
1. Rodriguez et al. [20] Malawi Case study iCCM Health surveillance assistants
2. Chilundo et al. [21] Mozambique Qualitative study iCCM CHWs
3. Yansaneh et al. [33] Sierra Leone Mixed methods: household survey, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions Free healthcare initiative and iCCM CHVs
4. Witek-McManus et al. [34] Malawi Pre-post interventional study Training programme for school teachers CHWs
5. Nanyonjo et al. [30] Uganda Cross-sectional study iCCM CHWs
6. Heidkamp et al. [26] Malawi Cross-sectional study iCCM CHWs, called health surveillance assistants
7. Linn et al. [19] Senegal Quasi-experimental study ProAct model (iCCM in which CHWs proactively search for cases) HCPs
8. Druetz et al. [35] Burkina Faso Cross-sectional study Community case management of malaria CHWs
9. Das et al. [36] India Pre-post interventional study a. Supportive supervision of ASHA plus community mobilization b. Community mobilization only ASHA
10. Yansaneh et al. [12] Sierra Leone Pre-post interventional study Health for the poorest quintile, focussing on 3 diseases: diarrhoea, malaria, pneumonia. CHWs
11. Banek et al. [13] Uganda Mixed methods: cross-sectional, qualitative design Home-base management of fever CMDs
12. Hamainza et al. [22] Zambia Longitudinal study CHWs providing passive and active visits to households CHWs
13. Abbey et al. [24] Ghana Mixed method: cross-sectional, qualitative design Community-based health intervention CHWs
14. Lwin et al. [37] Myanmar Community-base intervention study Sun primary health community-based intervention CHWs
15. Tine et al. [14] Senegal Randomized controlled trial CCMm and seasonal malaria chemoprevention CHWs
16. Tine et al. [29] Senegal Randomized controlled trial Home-based management of malaria using RDT, ACT, rectal artesunate seasonal malaria chemoprevention delivered by CHWs CHWs
17. Nanyonjo et al. [18] Uganda Cross-sectional study iCCM CHWs: Primary health facility workers (PFHWs)
18. Siekmans et al. [38] Kenya Cross-sectional study iCCM CHWs
19. Ndiaye et al. [39] Senegal Secondary data analysis CCMm CHWs
20. Blanas et al. [28] Senegal Mixed-methods design CCMm CHWs
21. Ohnmar et al. [40] Myanmar Randomized controlled trial Training unpaid village volunteers in provision of RDT, ACT and supervision Village volunteers
22. Lim et al. [41] Cambodia Cross-sectional study VMW vs health facility health worker intervention VMW
23. Kisia et al. [42] Kenya Cross-sectional study CCMm CHWs
24. Counihan et al. [25] Zambia Longitudinal study CHW intervention CHWs
25. Rutta et al. [43] Tanzania Pre-post intervention study CORPs to provide early diagnosis and treatment of malaria CORPs
26. Ratsimbasoa et al. [44] Madagascar Mixed methods design RDTs conducted by CHWs, compared to PCR and microscopy CHWs
27. Brenner et al. [23] Uganda Pre-post intervention study Volunteer community health worker intervention Community health volunteers
28. Mukanga et al. [45] Uganda Qualitative study Integrated malaria and pneumonia community case management CHWs
29. Thiam et al. [46] Senegal Secondary data analysis Home-based management of malaria HCPs
30. Okeibunor et al. [15] Nigeria Pre-post intervention study VCDDs intervention VCDD
31. Lemma et al. [47] Ethiopia Pre-post intervention study Training of CHWs CHWs
32. Patouillard et al. [16] Ghana Randomized controlled trial Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) Community health volunteers
33. Chanda et al. [48] Zambia Cross-sectional study HMM CHWs
34. Chanda et al. [49] Zambia Prospective study CHWs intervention CHWs
35 Ngasala et al. [50] Tanzania Prospective study Delivery of artemether–lumefantrine by community health workers CHWs
36. Phommanivong et al. [51] Lao PDR Prospective study Training of village health volunteers Village health workers
37. Yeboah-Antwi et al. [52] Zambia Cluster randomized controlled trial CHW intervention CHWs
38. Mukanga et al. [53] Uganda Qualitative study CHW intervention CMDs
39. Yasuoka et al. [17] Cambodia Cross-sectional study VMW intervention VMW
40. Hawkes et al. [54] Democratic Republic of Congo Prospective cohort study Training of CHWs CHWs
41. Eke et al. [55] Nigeria Prospective cohort study CHW intervention CHWs
42. Awor et al. [56] Uganda Quasi-experimental study iCCM Drug shop attendants
43. Cox et al. [57] Cambodia Mixed methods study Community-based surveillance systems VMW
44. Hamainza et al. [22] Zambia Cross-sectional study Mobile phone SMS vs register book CHWs
45. Ndiaye et al. [58] Senegal Prospective cohort study Paediatric kit containing quinine, purified water, syringe CHWs
46. Das et al. [59] India Longitudinal study Community-based presumptive chloroquine treatment Volunteers
47. Mbonye et al. [60] Uganda Intervention study Community-based IPTp Drug shop vendors, traditional birth attendants, community reproductive health worker, adolescent peer mobilizer
48. Vanek et al. [61] Tanzania Cross-sectional study Community-based surveillance CORPs
49. Cho-Min-Naing et al. [62] Myanmar Cross-sectional study Rapid on-site immunochromatographic test Volunteer health workers
50. Kelly et al. [63] Kenya Cross-sectional study Community initiatives for child survival CHWs
51. Ruebush et al. [64] Guatemala Intervention study Community-based malaria case detection system—Volunteer collaboration network (VCN) Volunteer collaborators
52. Aung et al. [65] Myanmar Pre-post intervention study Training of CHWs CHWs
53. Gidebo et al. [66] Ethiopia Mixed-methods study Health extension programme CHWs
54. Kalyango et al. [67] Uganda Mixed methods study iCCM of childhood illnesses CHWs
55. Hamer et al. [68] Zambia Cluster randomized controlled trial Training of CHWs CHWs
56. Mubi et al. [10] Tanzania Randomized cross-over trial Training of CHWs CHWs
57. Harvey et al. [69] Zambia Quasi-experimental study Training of CHWs CHWs
58. Delacollette et al. [70] Zaire Prospective cohort study Training of CHWs CHWs
59. Eriksen et al. [71] Tanzania Randomized controlled trial Training of community women leaders Women leaders
60. Kouyaté et al. [72] Burkina Faso Randomized controlled trial Training of women group leaders by health workers Lay community women leaders
61. Onwujekwe et al. [73] Nigeria Prospective study Training of CHWs CHWs
62. Mayxay et al. [74] Laos PDR Longitudinal study Training of VHVs VHVs
63. Hii et al. [75] Malaysia Cross-sectional study Community participation health programme (Sukarelawan Penjagaan Kesihatan Primer (SPKP)) VHVs
64. Spencer et al. [76] Kenya Cross-sectional study Community-based malaria control programme Volunteer community health workers
65. Ajayi et al. [77] Nigeria Pre-post intervention study Training of mother trainers CHWs
66. Kweku et al. [78] Ghana Randomized controlled trial IPTc Community volunteers vs health workers in health facilities
  1. iCCM integrated community case management, CHWs community health workers, ASHA accredited social health activist, HCPs home care providers, CMDs community medicine distributors, VMWs village malaria workers, CORPs community-owned resource persons, CCDD volunteer community-directed distributor, VHVs village health volunteers, CHVs community health volunteers