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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with severe malaria (n = 185 patients in all categories)

From: Severe malaria in Europe: an 8-year multi-centre observational study

Characteristics n (median) % [IQR]
Gender
 Male 132 71
Age
 Age in years (42) [31–52]
 ≥60 years 22 12
 ≤18 years 10 5
Origin of patients
 European, no history of migration 106 57
 Immigrant/history of migration 68 37
 Visitor from endemic country 11 6
Anti-malarial chemoprophylaxis
 None 162 88
 Non-adherence to prescribed regimen 17 9
 Doxycyclinea 2 1
 Chloroquine-proguanila,b 2 1
 Mefloquinea 1 1
 Atovaquone-proguanila 1 1
Criteria leading to classification as severe malaria
 Hyperparasitaemia >5% 132 71
 Hyperparasitaemia >10%c 55 30
 Hyperparasitaemia >2%c 154 83
 Jaundiced 81 44
 Impaired consciousness/coma 46 25
 Acute renal failure 36 19
 Liver function test >3 times upper normal 36 19
 Circulatory collapse/shock 27 15
 Anaemia <8 g/dl 27 15
 Respiratory failure 22 12
 Spontaneous/abnormal bleeding 13 7
 Acidosis 9 5
 Hypoglycaemia <40 mg/dl 6 3
 Multiple convulsions 3 2
Number of criteria for severe malaria met by individual patients
 1 59 32
 2 60 32
 3 30 16
 4 19 10
 5 10 5
 >5 7 3
Underlying co-morbidities
 Any 63 43
 Hypertension 16 9
 HIV 13 7
 Diabetes 10 5
 Chronic heart disease 8 4
 Hepatitis 3 2
 COPD 2 1
 Other chronic conditions 11 6
  1. Data are number of patients, unless indicated otherwise
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
  3. a Patients with reported adherence to chemoprophylaxis only
  4. b Chloroquine-proguanil was taken for travel to Togo in 2007 and Burkina Faso in 2010
  5. c Hyperparasitaemia >2 and >10% were not used as criteria for severe malaria in this study according to WHO guidelines 2006 and are shown for informational purposes only
  6. d Clinical jaundice was used as criterion for severe malaria in this study according to WHO guidelines 2006