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Table 1 Population groups at elevated risk for malaria

From: Surveillance and response for high-risk populations: what can malaria elimination programmes learn from the experience of HIV?

Region/country High-risk livelihood or occupational activities Mobile populations Demographic groups
Forest Agricultural Mining/military/other
South/East Asia
 Bhutan [3, 106] Men collecting firewood Men sleeping in the fields to protect crops   Businessmen travelling to India  
Farmers
 Cambodia [5, 33, 107] Male forest workers    Temporary migrants Ethnic minority groups living on the forest fringe
Jarai male youth
 Indonesia [37] Forest workers   Military personnel Tourists  
Miners Migrants
 Malaysia [40, 108, 109] Logging, fishing and other forest work Plantation workers Military personnel   Indigenous Orang Asli in the hinterland, particularly children
 Sri Lanka [8, 110] Adult men working on forest fringe   Adult male gem miners Military personnel returning from South Sudan and Haiti  
Fisherman returning from Sierra Leone
Laborers and migrants from Myanmar
Pakistani asylum seekers
 Thailand [46, 108, 109, 111113] Rubber tapers    Migrants from Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos  
Internal migrants from rural areas to foothills or forests
Migrant workers
Mobile ethnic groups
Foreign travellers
 Vietnam [6, 114] Forest-goers Agricultural workers    Ra-glai population
Male wood-cutters Lower socioeconomic status
East Asia/Pacific
 China [115118]     Laborers returning from Africa  
Gold miners returning from Ghana
Laborers returning to Jiangsu from elsewhere in China
 Philippines [38, 39] Forest clearing, logging, wood gathering, hunting   Military personnel   Indigenous populations, particularly in rural areas
Charcoal workers
Construction workers
 North Korea [119]   Agricultural workers, ages 17–59 years Industrial workers, ages 17–59 years   
Latin America
 Brazil [4, 120123]    Adult male gold miners   
 Suriname [124]     Illegal gold miners in remote areas  
 Venezuela [125, 126]    Gold miners   
Other
 Saudi Arabia [127]     Adult males from North India  
Migrants from southwest to east of country
 Swaziland [45]     Adult male migrant workers, primarily from Mozambique  
 Turkmenistan [128]    Military personnel   Males in rural areas
Oil and gas workers
 Ethiopia [34]     Young adult seasonal migrant farm workers in northwest Ethiopia