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Table 6 Factors associated with appropriate testing among suspect uncomplicated malaria patients (N = 1427)

From: Health worker adherence to malaria treatment guidelines at outpatient health facilities in southern Malawi following implementation of universal access to diagnostic testing

Factors Number of patients Number tested (weighted  %) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Patient spontaneously reported these complaints to the HW
 Fever
  Yes 950 784 (81.8) 2.6 (1.6–4.3) <0.0001 2.6 (1.7–4.0) <0.0001
  No 477 288 (62.9) Ref   Ref  
 Headache
  Yes 481 380 (79.4) 1.4 (0.9–1.9) 0.055 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 0.017
  No 946 692 (73.8) Ref   Ref  
 Vomiting
  Yes 223 194 (86.1) 2.2 (1.2–4.2) 0.016 2.0 (1.0–4.0) 0.040
  No 1204 878 (73.8) Ref   Ref  
 Skin problem
  Yes 80 37 (49.0) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) <0.0001 0.4 (0.2–0.6) 0.0001
  No 1347 1035 (77.1) Ref   Ref  
  1. Ref means referent group
  2. Interaction term included in the model. Other factors with p value ≥0.1 in the univariate analysis that were not included in the multivariable model were: (1) Patient-level factors: patient spontaneous report to the HW of malaria, chills, fatigue, joint pain, weakness or cough; (2) HW-level factors: HW age, number of patients seen by the HW, number of years of formal training received, number of years of clinical experience, latest training on malaria case management, access to the latest malaria treatment guidelines and supervision in the last 6 months; (3) HF-level factors: MoH vs CHAM operated HFs, availability of thermometers, number of patients at the HF and the number of HWs at the HF
  n/N Weighted percent (95% CI) OR (95% CI) p value
Interaction term included in the model: supervision * 2013 malaria treatment guidelines available
 Supervision * Guidelines 299/389 75.9 (66.1, 85.8) 2.2 (0.8, 6.6) 0.143
 Supervision * No guidelines 438/559 78.8 (69.5, 88.0) 2.7 (0.9, 8.0) 0.073
 No supervision * Guidelines 161/190 87.4 (77.6, 97.2) 6.2 (1.6, 24.7) 0.009
 No supervision * No guidelines 174/289 56.8 (36.2, 77.4) Ref
  1. Ref means referent group
  2. Interaction term included in the model. Other factors with p value ≥0.1 in the univariate analysis that were not included in the multivariable model were: (1) Patient-level factors: patient spontaneous report to the HW of malaria, chills, fatigue, joint pain, weakness or cough; (2) HW-level factors: HW age, number of patients seen by the HW, number of years of formal training received, number of years of clinical experience, latest training on malaria case management, access to the latest malaria treatment guidelines and supervision in the last 6 months; (3) HF-level factors: MoH vs CHAM operated HFs, availability of thermometers, number of patients at the HF and the number of HWs at the HF