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Table 2 Travel characteristics of cases and controls reporting any overnight travel in the 6 weeks prior to diagnosis

From: Malaria risk in young male travellers but local transmission persists: a case–control study in low transmission Namibia

Travel characteristic Engela Omusati/Oshikuku
Cases n = 57 (%) Controls n = 298 (%) Cases n = 50 (%) Controls n = 381 (%)a
Total number of travelers 21 (36.8) 41 (13.8) 7 (14.0) 42 (11.0)
Number with more than 1 trip 0 (0.0) 2b (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Male traveler 16 (28.1) 19 (6.4) 4 (8.0) 15 (3.9)
Age of traveler (years)
 <5 1 (1.8) 5 (1.7) 1 (2.0) 10 (2.6)
 5–14 4 (7.0) 7 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)
 15–29 12 (21.0) 15 (5.0) 3 (6.0) 16 (4.2)
 30–44 3 (5.3) 10 (3.4) 0 (0.0) 11 (2.9)
 45–59 1 (1.8) 2 (0.7) 3 (6.0) 0 (0.0)
 60+ 0 (0.0) 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.8)
Endemicity class (PfPR2-10)
 Namibia (%) 4 (7.0) 36 (12.1) 4 (8.0) 30 (7.9)
  <1 0 (0.0) 16 (5.4) 2 (4.0) 9 (2.4)
  1–4.9 1 (1.8) 2 (0.7) 1 (2.0) 4 (1.0)
  5–10 3 (5.3) 18 (6.0) 1 (2.0) 17 (4.5)
 Angola (%) 17 (29.8) 5 (1.7) 3 (6.0) 12 (3.1)
  <1 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  1–4.9 6 (10.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)
  5–10 11c (19.3) 5d (1.7) 3e (6.0) 11f (2.9)
Travel to higher endemic class 0 (0.0) 16 (5.4) 4 (8.0) 18 (4.7)
Duration of stay
 1–13 days 6 (10.5) 7 (2.3) 1 (2.0) 3 (0.8)
 2–4 weeks 3 (5.3) 11 (3.7) 1 (2.0) 6 (1.6)
 1–6 months 12 (21.0) 23 (7.7) 5 (10.0) 33 (8.7)
  1. PfPR2-10: mean annually averaged prevalence of P falciparum infection in 2–10 year olds
  2. aOne control missing age
  3. bOne female and one male took two and three trips respectively. All trips were of the same duration (1–13 days) and to destinations in Namibia. Travel was classified based on the highest endemicity destination: PfPR2-10 < 1% (four trips) or PfPR2-10 1–4.9% (one trip)
  4. Number of missing trip coordinates in Angola and assumed to lie in PfPR2-10 5–10%: 6c; 3d; 3e; 9f