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Table 1 Biochemical and molecular characteristics of the Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations tested

From: WHO cone bio-assays of classical and new-generation long-lasting insecticidal nets call for innovative insecticides targeting the knock-down resistance mechanism in Benin

Strains of An. gambiae s.l. Average oxidase activity (min/mg protein) Average α esterase activity (min/mg protein) Average β esterase activity (min/mg protein) Average glutathione-S-transferase activity (min/mg protein) kdr frequency
Kisumu 0.1015a 0.07409a 0.07655a 0.3846a 0a
Agblangandan 0.07966a 0.07883a 0.06117a 0.7319b 0.03a
Abomey-Calavi 0.08454a 0.07149a 0.05929a 0.4295a 0.93 b
Akron 0.1604b 0.08589a 0.07897a 2.221b 0.74 b
Houeyiho 0.17.39b 0.07694a 0.08774a 0.4042a 0.9 b
Vossa 0.07566a 0.06897a 0.06389a 0.7078a 0.84 b
Ladji 0.1737b 0.07146a 0.0774a 1.194b 0.92 b
Bame 0.1106a 0.0588a 0.06223a 0.2901a 0.78b
Malanville 0.06549a 0.04949a 0.04871a 0.1723a 0.90 b
Parakou 0.1536b 0.08124a 0.08871a 0.4698a 0.74 b
Tanguieta 0.2267b 0.1585b 0.1442b 1.182b 0.85 b
  1. a, bValues with the same superscript do not differ significantly at α = 0.05