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Table 1 Exoerythrocytic stages reported in different avian Plasmodium parasites

From: Exo-erythrocytic development of avian malaria and related haemosporidian parasites

Subgenus and species Stage Reference
Cryptozoite Metacryptozoite Phanerozoite
Haemamoeba
 Plasmodium cathemerium + + + [54, 59, 60]
 P. gallinaceum + + + [7, 8, 10, 54, 55, 57, 58, 6163]
 P. giovannolai a + [64, 65]
 P. subpraecox + [66]
 P. lutzi + [67]
 P. matutinum + [2, 6872]
 P. relictum + + + [8, 54, 7376]
 P. tejerai + [60, 7779]
Giovannolaia
 P. circumflexum + [8084]
 P. durae + [53, 8589]
 P. fallax + + + [55, 90, 91]
 P. gabaldoni    + [92]
 P. garnhami + + + [2, 93]
 P. homocircumflexum + [94]
 P. lophurae + + + [2, 55, 9597]
 P. octamerium + [98]
 P. pinottii + [2, 99]
 P. polare + [2, 100103]
Novyella
 P. bertii [104]
 P. dissanaikei + [105]
 P. hexamerium + [106]
 P. nucleophilum + [60, 107, 108]
 P. paranucleophilum + [109]
 P. vaughani + + [2, 110, 111]
Bennettinia
 P. juxtanucleare + [2, 112114]
Huffia     
 P. elongatum + [2, 55, 115118]
 P. hermani + [119122]
 P. huffi + [2, 123, 124]
  1. Only parasites, which species identification was supported by morphological or molecular identifications were included in this table. Reports of unidentified parasites or the parasites of undetermined or questionable taxonomic status were not included. To date, approximately 50 avian Plasmodium species were described, and 738 lineages of these parasites were reported (according to MalAvi database, http://mbio-serv2.mbioekol.lu.se/Malavi)
  2. aExoerythrocytic stages were not seen