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Table 1 Critical appraisal tool used at this review

From: A systematic review on malaria sero-epidemiology studies in the Brazilian Amazon: insights into immunological markers for exposure and protection

Critical appraisal tool
1. Was the research question or objective in this paper clearly stated? (1 point)
2. The study clearly describes exposures and outcomes (1 point)
3. The study clearly describes basic characteristics of participants (1 point)
4. The results were adjusted for possible confounding variables through stratification or multivariate analysis (1 point)
5. Statistical test
i. The statistical test used to analyse the data is clearly described and appropriate, and the measurement of the association is presented, including confidence intervals and probability level (1 point)
ii. The statistical test is not appropriate, not described or incomplete
6. The study informs the loss to follow-up characteristics: numbers and reasons (1 point—cohort studies only)
7. Participants were followed for the same time or the study was adjusted for different follow-up times (1 point—cohort studies only)
8. The measures used for the main outcomes were accurate: description of the technique for the diagnosis of malaria and antibody measurement (1 point)
9. The demographic characteristics were comparable or adjusted: age and geographic area (1 point)
10. The participants of different groups were recruited in the same period of time (1 point)
11. Representativeness of the sample:
i. Truly representative of the average in the target population: all subjects or random sampling (2 points)
ii. Somewhat representative of the average in the target population: non-random sampling (1 point)
iii. Selected group of users
12. Sample size:
i. Justified and satisfactory (1 point)
ii. Not justified
13. Ascertainment of the exposure (risk factor)
i. Validated measurement tool or non-validated measurement tool, but the tool is available or described (1 point)
ii. No description of the measurement tool
  1. Cross-sectional studies score a maximum of 12 points. Cohort studies score a maximum of 14 points