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Table 3 Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence among apparently healthy children 0–15 years old enrolled between January 2011 and April 2015 from the north-central and northwest regions of Uganda

From: Age and geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a representative sample of children living in Burkitt lymphoma-endemic areas of northern Uganda

Characteristics   Unadjusted P Adjusted* P
Weighted  (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI)
All subjects 1142 54.8
Age group, years
 0–5 326 52.0 1.00    
 6–10 572 58.2 1.29 (0.86–1.93)    
 11–15 252 52.3 1.01 (0.56–1.85) 0.185
Sex
 Female 541 55.2 1.00    
 Male 609 54.5 0.97 (0.68–1.39) 0.885
Proximity to water
 Far (>500 m) 486 51.6 1.00    
 Near (≤500 m) 664 55.2 1.16 (0.63–2.12) 0.631
Population density
 Low (<2683 children) 753 59.1 1.00    
 High (≥2683 children) 397 46.0 0.59 (0.29–1.21) 0.151
Season
 Dry season 731 48.7 1.00   1.00  
 Wet season 419 69.1 2.35 (1.26–4.40) 0.009 1.81 (0.95–3.46) 0.076
Region
 North-central 697 53.0 1.00    
 Northwest 453 57.8 1.21 (0.65–2.28) 0.547
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) sub-region
 Not an IRS district 737 65.7 1.00    
 IRS district 413 32.8 0.26 (0.14–0.46) <0.001
Indoor residual spraying (IRS) in house
 More than a year ago 752 64.4 1.00   1.00  
 In the past year 392 34.0 0.28 (0.15–0.53) <0.001 0.37 (0.14–1.03) 0.061
Sub-regions
 1 113 60.3 1.00   1.00  
 2 289 67.7 1.38 (0.68–2.78)   1.30 (0.66–2.57)  
 3 51 29.8 0.28 (0.07–1.15)   0.25 (0.07–0.86)  
 4 97 21.9 0.18 (0.08–0.45)   0.43 (0.11–1.62)  
 5 303 55.3 0.81 (0.39–1.69)   1.10 (0.44–2.75)  
 6 90 3.2 0.02 (0.00–0.10)   0.03 (0.01–0.24)  
 7 207 75.8 2.06 (0.77–5.52) <.001 1.12 (0.43–2.89) 0.001
Mother’s education
 Up to primary 4 581 53.6 1.00    
 Primary 5 or higher 565 56.4 1.12 (0.78–1.60) 0.551
Mother’s income (Ugandan shillings)
 <30, 000 USHS 560 59.0 1.00 (1.00–1.00)   1.00  
 ≥30,000 USHS 585 49.6 0.68 (0.47–1.00) 0.055 0.57 (0.37–0.87) 0.011
Mosquito net used last night
 No 777 54.2 1.00   
 Yes 366 56.4 1.09 (0.64–1.87) 0.743  
Inpatient for malaria
 No 725 54.2 1.00    
 Past 12 months 150 42.8 0.63 (0.35–1.15)    
 More than 12 months 269 63.1 1.45 (0.88–2.39) 0.119
Outpatient for malaria
 No 523 46.9 1.00   1.00  
 Past 12 months 532 60.4 1.73 (1.10–2.72)   1.28 (0.82–2.01)  
 More than 12 months 89 52.6 1.26 (0.53–2.99) 0.064 1.00 (0.37–2.69) 0.476
  1. Dry season months were January to March and July to August; Wet season months were April to June and September to December. Mother’s income was estimated in Ugandan shillings (30,000 Ugandan shillings are approximately equal to 10 US dollars). Final adjusted models included all variables with P < 0.10 (season, IRS of insecticide, sub-region, mother’s income, and outpatient malaria treatment). IRS in the sub-region was not included in the model despite its unadjusted P < 0.001, since it was highly correlated with IRS in the house
  2. Results with a two-sided P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant and those with P < 0.10 were considered as showing a trend towards significance. These results are shown in italics. * The adjusted models were fit including those variables with P < 0.10 in the unadjusted analysis to adjust their effects for each other. The significant or suggestive results in the adjusted models are shown in italics