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Table 1 Description of malaria treatment outcomes

From: Immunity as a predictor of anti-malarial treatment failure: a systematic review

Malaria treatment outcome Description
Revised WHO classification of treatment failures [7, 8]a Early treatment failure (ETF)
 Development of danger signs or severe malaria on days 1, 2 or 3, in the presence of parasitaemia
 Parasitaemia on day 2 higher than day 0 count, irrespective of axillary temperature
 Parasitaemia on day 3 with axillary temperature of ≥37.5 °C
 Parasitaemia of day 3 ≥25% of day 0 count
Late treatment failure
 Late clinical failure (LCF)
  Development of danger signs or severe malaria after day 3 in presence of parasitaemia
  Presence of parasitaemia and axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C on any day from day 4 to 14 (day 28 in low transmission areas), without previously meeting any of the criteria of ETF
 Late parasitological failure (LPF)
  Presence of parasitaemia on day 14 (any day from day 7 to 28 in low transmission areas), and axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C, without previously meeting any of the criteria of ETF or LCF
Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR)
 Absence of parasitaemia on day 28 irrespective of axillary temperature without previously meeting any of the criteria of ETF or LCF or LPF
  1. aSeparate protocols followed in low and high transmission areas until 2002, after this one protocol is implemented and recommends the systematic use of PCR as well as a new 28 or 42 day follow up period. Applicable to all anti-malarial treatments