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Table 2 Characteristics of non-QAACT available in the public sector during the most recent survey round

From: Do anti-malarials in Africa meet quality standards? The market penetration of non quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy in eight African countries

  Kinshasa, DRC 2015 Katanga DRC 2015 Nigeria 2015 Kenya 2014 Tanzania 2014 Uganda 2015 Zambia 2014
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
N = 390 N = 148 N = 96 N = 50 N = 58 N = 59 N = 941
Active ingredients (type)
 Artemether lumefantrine 75.0 (69.9–79.5) 76.8 (66.1, 84.9) 76.2 (52.7, 90.2) 44.2 (23.4, 67.3) 52.6 (33.1, 71.4) 37.6 (22.1, 56.2) 100.0 (99.8, 100.0)
 Artesunate amodiaquine 4.9 (3.1, 7.9) 10.5 (3.9, 25.3) 8.3 (1.6, 33.0) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
 Artesunate mefloquine 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.3 (<0.1, 2.2) 0.3 (0.1, 1.0) 5.0 (1.2, 18.0) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
 Artemisinin piperaquine 1.2 (0.3, 4.5) 1.6 (0.5, 4.9) 0.0 (–) 6.4 (2.8, 13.9) 2.5 (1.0, 6.3) 0.0 (–) 0.0
 Artemisinin naphthoquine 0.9 (0.1, 6.1) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 6.2 (2.6, 13.9) 0.0 (–) 19.0 (7.7, 39.7) 0.0 (–)
 Artesunate SP 5.1 (3.3, 7.9) 5.5 (2.9, 10.3) 3.2 (0.5, 18.8) 0.8 (0.2, 3.0) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.1 (<0.1, 0.2)
 Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine 12.1 (8.2, 17.3) 2.1 (0.9, 4.7) 12.0 (4.4, 28.7) 42.1 (26.1, 59.9) 39.9 (22.0, 61.0) 43.0 (26.1, 61.6) 0.0 (–)
 Dihydroartemisinin SP 0.8 (0.4, 1.8) 3.5 (0.9, 12.3) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
 Arterolane piperaquine 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.4 (0.1, 2.6) 0.0 (–)
Product formulation
 Tablet 56.5 (48.0, 64.7) 70.0 (61.4, 77.3) 61.0 (41.9, 77.2) 77.1 (64.5, 86.2) 91.5 (78.6, 96.9) 87.3 (74.7, 94.1) 99.6 (99.0, 99.8)
 Suspension 43.5 (35.3, 52.0) 30.0 (22.7, 38.6) 38.1 (22.1, 57.2) 22.9 (13.8, 35.5) 7.6 (2.6, 20.1) 12.8 (5.9, 25.3) 0.4 (0.2, 1.0)
 Granule 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.9 (0.1, 7.0) 0.0 (–) 0.9 (0.1, 5.6) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
  N = 384 N = 145 N = 96 N = 50 N = 54 N = 59 N = 939
Country of manufacturea
 Local 25.6 (19.8, 32.4) 23.7 (15.9, 33.7) 17.1 (5.2, 43.5) 14.8 (7.1, 28.2) 1.1 (0.2, 6.6) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
 India 62.7 (57.2, 67.8) 69.7 (59.7, 78.1) 61.5 (42.8, 77.3) 58.8 (40.5, 75.0) 35.3 (18.2, 57.2) 37.7 (21.9, 56.5) 99.9 (99.7, 100.0)
 China 2.4 (0.9, 6.6) 1.8 (0.6, 5.7) 19.0 (7.9, 39.0) 16.7 (8.7, 29.5) 47.3 (27.7, 67.7) 54.1 (33.9, 73.0) 0.0 (–)
 European Country 3.4 (2.0, 5.6) 2.9 (1.3, 6.4) 0.3 (< 0.1, 2.2) 9.7 (5.5, 16.6) 16.3 (6.4, 35.6) 8.3 (2.8, 22.0) 0.1 (< 0.1, 0.4)
 Otherb 6.0 (2.7, 12.8) 1.9 (0.4, 9.3) 2.2 (0.4, 12.1) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
 Registered with the National Drug Regulatory Authority 52.8 (44.0, 61.4) 19.3 (13.2, 27.2) 48.5 (26.9, 70.6) 33.6 (21.5, 48.2) n/a 63.2 (43.5, 79.2) 1.6 (0.9, 3.0)
  1. Countries excluded include: Benin (n = 18 products) and Madagascar (n = 4 products)
  2. n/a Registration list not available in Tanzania for 2014
  3. a Excluding products with unknown country of manufacture
  4. b Kinshasa: Vietnam; Katanga: Morocco; Nigeria: Morocco, Pakistan