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Table 3 Characteristics of non-QAACT available in the private sector during the most recent survey round

From: Do anti-malarials in Africa meet quality standards? The market penetration of non quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy in eight African countries

  Benin 2014 Kinshasa, DRC 2015 Katanga, DRC 2015 Nigeria 2015 Kenya 2014 Tanzania 2014 Uganda 2015 Zambia 2014
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
N = 6436 N = 6999 N = 1877 N = 7077 N = 3083 N = 2255 N = 7179 N = 555
Active ingredients (type)
Artemether lumefantrine 64.9 (61.6, 68.1) 67.0 (64.8, 69.2) 75.1 (68.0, 81.1) 65.8 (62.4, 69.0) 40.3 (36.5, 44.2) 29.0 (24.7, 33.7) 52.5 (48.5, 56.4) 75.4 (66.4, 82.6)
Artesunate amodiaquine 1.4 (1.0, 2.1) 3.8 (3.1, 4.6) 3.7 (2.9, 4.9) 5.5 (3.7, 8.1) 0.3 (0.2, 0.5) 0.2 (0.1, 0.3) 0.3 (0.1, 1.0) 1.1 (0.2, 7.5)
Artesunate mefloquine 5.5 (4.3, 7.1) 0.5 (2.6, 0.8) <0.1 (<0.1, 0.2) 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 2.8 (2.2, 3.6) 8.2 (5.7, 11.5) 1.1 (0.8, 1.7) 0.0 (–)
Artemisinin piperaquine 0.2 (0.0, 0.8) 1.4 (0.9, 2.1) 1.5 (0.6, 3.5) 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) 8.5 (7.9, 9.3) 19.3 (16.5, 22.4) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
Artemisinin naphthoquine 1.1 (0.7, 1.5) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 2.3 (1.9, 2.7) 1.7 (0.6, 4.6) 6.7 (5.4, 8.3) 0.7 (0.3, 1.5)
Artesunate SP 8.6 (7.6, 9.7) 9.7 (8.6, 10.8) 7.3 (4.0, 13.0) 1.6 (1.1, 2.4) 3.3 (2.6, 4.1) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 21.2 (14.1, 30.5)
Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine 11.7 (9.2, 14.6) 14.6 (13.4, 15.8) 5.1 (3.8, 6.8) 24.7 (22.7, 46.7) 42.2 (40.0, 44.9) 41.7 (37.9, 45.7) 39.1 (36.0, 42.2) 1.6 (14.1, 30.5)
Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine trimethoprim 3.4 (2.9, 3.9) 0.2 (0.1, 0.5) 0.0 (–) 0.1 (<0.1, 0.2) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
Dihydroartemisinin SP 3.3 (2.6,4.3) 2.9 (2.5, 3.3) 7.2 (6.3, 8.2) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–)
Arterolane piperaquine 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.0 (–) 0.0 (–) 0.3 (0.1, 0.5) 0.0 (–)
Product formulation
 Tablet 71.2 (68.3, 74.0) 60.2 (57.5, 62.8) 66.1 (63.9, 68.1) 60.8 (57.3, 64.2) 68.5 (66.2, 70.7) 86.4 (82.9, 89.2) 74.7 (71.3, 77.9) 74.3 (67.5, 80.1)
 Suspension 25.3 (23.8, 26.9) 39.8 (37.2, 42.5) 33.9 (31.8, 36.1) 35.8 (31.9, 39.9) 30.4 (28.1, 32.9) 13.6 (10.8, 17.0) 25.2 (22.0, 28.6) 25.7 (19.9, 32.5)
 Granule or suppository 3.5 (1.5, 7.9) <0.1 (<0.1, 0.2) <0.1 (<0.1, 0.2) 3.4 (2.6, 4.5) 1.1 (0.8, 1.6) 0.1 (<0.1, 0.2) 0.1 (0.1, 0.3) 0.0 (–)
  N = 6426 N = 6986 N = 1853 N = 7074 N = 3072 N = 2237 N = 7137 N = 546
Country of manufacturea
 Local 0.0 (–) 24.8 (23.4, 26.2) 29.2 (26.9, 31.5) 15.2 (13.1, 17.6) 3.9 (3.3, 4.7) 9.2 (6.7, 12.6) 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 0.0 (–)
 India 55.1 (53.1, 57.0) 60.5 (58.2, 62.8) 59.1 (51.7, 66.2) 59.3 (54.1, 64.4) 53.0 (51.3, 54.7) 6.5 (4.7, 8.9) 72.4 (69.3, 75.2) 67.9 (53.1, 79.8)
 China 18.4 (17.3, 19.6) 2.5 (1.8, 3.4) 2.6 (1.5, 4.3) 21.3 (18.0, 25.1) 27.0 (25.2, 28.8) 62.0 (56.9, 66.8) 23.1 (20.5, 25.9) 4.3 (1.8, 9.7)
 European Country 19.5 (17.8, 21.3) 7.6 (6.7, 8.7) 8.3 (3.7, 17.5) 2.2 (1.0, 4.8) 14.3 (13.0, 15.7) 22.1 (18.5, 26.3) 3.2 (2.3, 4.3) 27.8 (18.3, 39.8)
 Otherb 7.1 (5.7, 8.9) 4.6 (4.1, 5.1) 0.8 (0.3, 2.5) 2.0 (1.0, 4.1) 1.8 (1.3, 2.4) 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) 0.1 (<0.1, 0.4) <0.1 (<0.1, 0.3)
Registered with a National Drug Regulatory Authority 36.4 (32.8, 40.3) 53.1 (52.0, 54.1) 41.6 (33.5, 50.3) 60.5 (57.6, 63.4) 64.7 (63.4, 66.1) n/a 89.6 (87.8, 91.2) 79.5 (70.9, 86.1)
  1. Countries excluded include: Madagascar (n = 0 products)
  2. n/a Registration list not available in Tanzania for 2014
  3. a Excluding products with unknown country of manufacture
  4. b Benin: Cote d’Ivoire, DRC, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo; Kinshasa: Vietnam; Katanga: Zambia; Nigeria: Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Senegal, Vietnam; Kenya: Bangladesh, USA, Vietnam; Tanzania: Morocco, USA; Uganda: Morocco, USA; Zambia: Kenya