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Table 1 Details on current anti-malarial agents

From: Exploring anti-malarial potential of FDA approved drugs: an in silico approach

Drug name Drug class Anti-malarial activity Side effects
Quinine Cinchona alkaloids Accumulates in food vacuoles and forms toxic haem complexes Side effects include hearing impairment, rashes, vertigo, vomiting and in some cases neurotoxicity
Quinidine
Mefloquine Quinolines and derivatives Nausea, dizziness, diarrhoea, bradycardia and neurotoxicity
Chloroquine May cause psoriasis
Amodiaquine Vomiting, dizziness and in some cases hepatic disorders
Primaquine   Believed to block oxidative metabolism in the parasite Anorexia, vomiting, cramps and anaemia
Halofantrine Phenanthrenes and derivatives Causes parasite membrane damage by forming cytotoxic complexes Nausea, diarrhoea, itching and high cardiotoxicity
Sulfadoxine Benzene and substituted derivatives Inhibit synthesis of folates Skin reactions (rare)
Sulfamethoxypyridazine
Proguanil Very few: hair loss and mouth ulcers
Pyrimethamine Diazines Occasional rashes
Tetracycline Tetracyclines Inhibits translation
Doxycycline Depression of bone growth and gastrointestinal disturbances
Clindamycin Carboxylic acids and derivatives Inhibits protein synthesis Nausea, vomiting and cramps
Azithromycin Macrolides and analogues May cause angioedema and jaundice
Artemisinin Lipids and lipid-like molecules Believed to affect mitochondrial electron transport chain [46] or disrupt cellular redox cycling or inhibition of haem metabolism [47] Nausea, anorexia, dizziness and neurotoxicity
Atovaquone Naphthalenes Affects mitochondrial electron transport chain May cause rashes, diarrhoea and headache
  1. DrugBank (v.4.3) [26]. The drugs highlighted in italics denote anti-bacterials repurposed for use against malaria