Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of Ugandan children with cerebral malaria with versus without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kynurenic acid (KYNA) measurement

From: Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenine and kynurenic acid concentrations are associated with coma duration and long-term neurocognitive impairment in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria

Characteristic Included children (N = 69a) Excluded children (N = 200a) P valuec
Age, years, median (inter-quartile range) 3.3 (2.5, 4.4) 3.5 (2.5, 4.9) 0.71
Sex, n, (% female) 21 (30.4%) 89 (44.5%) 0.04
Hemoglobin, g/dL, mean (SD) 7.0 (2.6) 6.9 (2.2) 0.72
Parasitaemia, parasites/µL, median (IQR) (N) 44,280 (12,920, 294,660) (65) 48,420 (10,880, 262,060) (197) 0.96
Lactic acidosis presentb, n/N (%) 20/65 (30.8%) 69/185 (37.3%) 0.34
Malaria retinopathy present, n/N (%) 43/68 (63.2%) 124/187 (66.3) 0.64
Convulsions during illness (yes/no), n (%) 64 (92.7%) 187 (93.5%) 0.83
Number of convulsions in hospital, median (IQR) 1 (0, 2) 1 (0, 2) 0.37
Total hours in coma, median (IQR) (N) 54 (40, 77) (66) 44 (18.25, 80) (193) 0.04
Neurologic deficits at discharge, n/N (%) 27/66 (40.9%) 56/166 (33.7%) 0.3
Neurologic deficits, 12 mo follow-up, n/N (%) 2/62 (3.2%) 5/161 (3.1%) 0.96
CSF IFN-γ, pg/mL, median (IQR) (N) 30.3 (16.1, 47.8) (52) 20.5 (11.8, 26.1) (94) 0.004
CSF TNF-α, pg/mL, median (IQR) (N) 1.8 (0.8, 3.3) (69) 1.2 (0.1, 2.4) (110) 0.02
  1. IFN interferon, TNF tumour necrosis factor
  2. aFor variables for which N is less than the total N listed for group, N’s for that variable and group are noted in the table
  3. bLactate value >5 µmol/L
  4. cWilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables, χ2 test for categorical variables