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Table 5 Univariate risk factor analysis for P. vivax and P. falciparum infection in Lupuna (LUP)

From: Micro-heterogeneity of malaria transmission in the Peruvian Amazon: a baseline assessment underlying a population-based cohort study

  P. vivax by PCR P. falciparum by PCR
n N % OR OR [95% CI] n N % OR OR [95% CI]
Gender
 Female 13 382 3.4 Ref    3 382 0.8 Ref   
 Male 17 395 4.3 1.3 0.6 2.7 6 395 1.5 1.9 0.5 7.7
Age (years)
 <15 9 234 3.8 Ref    5 234 2.1 6.3 0.7 58.7
 15–39 15 291 5.2 1.4 0.6 3.2 3 291 1.0 2.7 0.3 27.6
 ≥40 6 252 2.4 0.6 0.2 1.7 1 252 0.4 Ref   
Time in village (years)
 <10 7 242 2.9 Ref    3 242 1.2 Ref   
 ≥10 23 535 4.3 1.5 0.6 3.6 6 535 1.1 0.9 0.2 3.7
Education
 None 3 89 3.4 Ref    1 89 1.1 Ref   
 Incomplete primary 6 245 2.4 0.7 0.2 2.9 2 245 0.8 0.7 0.1 8.6
 Complete primary 6 153 3.9 1.2 0.3 4.8 2 153 1.3 1.1 0.1 13.3
 Secondary 15 290 5.2 1.6 0.4 5.5 4 290 1.4 1.2 0.1 11.8
Forest-related job
 No 21 563 3.7 Ref    7 563 1.2 Ref   
 Yes (≤5 day/week) 8 153 5.2 1.4 0.6 3.3 2 153 1.3 0.9 0.2 4.9
 Yes (>5 day/week) 0 56 0.0 NC    0 56 0.0 NC   
Trip previous month
 No 30 771 3.9 Ref    9 771 1.2 Ref   
 Yes 0 6 0.0 NC    0 6 0.0 NC   
Malaria episodes (previous 12 months)
 0 25 662 3.8 Ref    9 662 1.4 Ref   
 ≥1 episodes 5 107 4.7 1.2 0.5 3.3 0 107 0.0 NC   
Overcrowding (>3 persons/bedroom)
 No 17 452 3.8 Ref    2 452 0.4 Ref   
 Yes 13 325 4.0 1.1 0.5 2.2 7 325 2.2 4.9* 1.0 24.6
Bednet coverage, %
 ≥80 30 751 4.0 Ref    9 751 1.2 Ref   
 <80 0 26 0.0 NC    0 26 0.0 NC   
Roof material
 Calamine 9 245 3.7 Ref    2 245 0.8 Ref   
 Palm 21 532 3.9 1.1 0.5 2.4 7 532 1.3 1.6 0.3 8.3
Floor material
 Cement 5 184 2.7 Ref    1 184 0.5 Ref   
 Wood 6 93 6.5 2.5 0.7 8.3 0 93 0.0 NC   
 Dirt 19 500 3.8 1.4 0.5 3.8 8 500 1.6 2.9 0.2 38.1
Electricity
 Yes 13 271 4.8 Ref    1 271 0.4 Ref   
 No 17 506 3.4 0.7 0.3 1.4 8 506 1.6 4.3 0.5 36.0
  1. Random-effects variance for P. falciparum model = 0.62 (including only overcrowding)
  2. Ref reference, NC non calculated
  3. * p < 0.05