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Table 6 Univariate and multivariate risk factor analysis for P. vivax and P. falciparum infection in Cahuide (CAH)

From: Micro-heterogeneity of malaria transmission in the Peruvian Amazon: a baseline assessment underlying a population-based cohort study

  P. vivax by PCR P. falciparum by PCR
n N % OR OR [95% CI] AOR AOR [95% CI] n N % OR OR [95% CI] AOR AOR [95% CI]
Gender
 Female 19 471 4.0 Ref    Ref    12 471 2.5 Ref      
 Male 44 542 8.1 2.1 1.2 3.8 2.0* 1.1 3.6 14 542 2.6 1.0 0.5 2.3    
Age (years)
 <15 13 401 3.2 Ref    Ref    17 401 4.2 5.6* 1.3 24.8 5.5* 1.3 24.4
 15–39 30 362 8.3 2.8* 1.4 5.5 2.8* 1.4 5.6 7 362 1.9 2.4 0.5 12.0 2.3 0.5 11.3
 ≥40 20 249 8.0 2.6* 1.2 5.5 2.4* 1.2 5.1 2 249 0.8 Ref    Ref   
Time in village (years)
 <2 17 237 7.2 Ref       5 237 2.1 Ref      
 2–9 26 448 5.8 0.8 0.4 1.7     15 448 3.3 1.6 0.5 4.6    
 ≥10 20 328 6.1 0.9 0.4 1.9     6 328 1.8 0.8 0.2 2.8    
Education
 None 7 135 5.2 Ref       5 135 3.7 Ref      
 Incomplete primary 23 397 5.8 1.2 0.5 3.0     10 397 2.5 0.7 0.2 2.0    
 Complete primary 17 242 7.0 1.6 0.6 4.1     5 242 2.1 0.5 0.1 1.9    
 Secondary 16 237 6.8 1.5 0.6 3.9     6 237 2.5 0.7 0.2 2.2    
Forest-related job
 No 37 750 4.9 Ref    Ref    25 750 3.3 Ref      
 Yes (≤5 day/week) 4 38 10.5 1.6 0.8 3.1 1.1 0.3 3.3 0 183 0.0 NC      
 Yes (>5 day/week) 16 168 9.5 3.4* 1.6 7.2 1.1 0.6 2.3 1 79 1.3 0.4 0.1 3.4    
Trip previous month
 No 61 969 6.3 Ref       26 969 2.7 Ref      
 Yes 2 44 4.5 0.7 0.2 3.2     0 44 0.0 NC      
Malaria episodes (previous 12 months)
 0 31 499 6.2 Ref       16 499 3.2 Ref      
 ≥1 episodes 32 512 6.3 1.0 0.6 1.7     10 512 2.0 0.6 0.3 1.3    
Overcrowding (>3 persons/bedroom)
 No 23 425 5.4 Ref       14 425 3.3 Ref      
 Yes 40 588 6.8 1.3 0.7 2.3     12 588 2.0 0.6 0.3 1.4    
Bednet coverage, %
 ≥80 60 985 6.1 Ref       26 985 2.6 Ref      
 <80 3 28 10.7 2.1 0.5 8.8     0 28 0.0 NC      
Roof material
 Calamine 14 144 9.7 Ref       7 144 4.9 Ref      
 Palm 49 865 5.7 0.6 0.3 1.1     19 865 2.2 0.4 0.2 1.1    
Floor material
 Cement 9 122 7.4 Ref       6 122 4.9 Ref      
 Wood 32 590 5.4 0.7 0.3 1.6     14 590 2.4 0.5 0.2 1.3    
 Dirt 22 301 7.3 1.0 0.4 2.5     6 301 2.0 0.4 0.1 1.3    
Electricity
 Yes 26 560 4.6 Ref    Ref    20 560 3.6 2.7 1.1 7.1 2.8 1.1 7.4
 No 37 453 8.2 1.9* 1.0 3.3 1.9 1.1 3.4 6 453 1.3 Ref    Ref   
  1. Random-effects variance for adjusted P. vivax model = 0.48
  2. Random-effects variance for adjusted P. falciparum model = 0.36
  3. Ref reference, NC non calculated
  4. * p < 0.05