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Table 1 Mortality of Anopheles gambiae s.l. exposed to deltamethrin and permethrin alone as well as PBO + deltamethrin and PBO + permethrin in 2015 and 2016 in the southern sector

From: Evaluation of piperonyl butoxide in enhancing the efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides against resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Ghana

Region Sentinel site Insecticide 2015 2016
Total tested % Mortality CI 95% Mortality p value Total tested % Mortality CI 95% mortality p value
Greater Accra Ada Deltamethrin 80 68.8 ±2.3 1.16E−13 98 4.1 ±0.6 3.13E−19
PBO + deltamethrin 80 100.0 ±0.0 94 93.6 ±1.4
Permethrin 80 75.0 ±2.8 2.66E−15 98 19.4 ±0.4 1.00E+00
PBO + permethrin 80 97.5 ±0.6 98 19.4 ±0.4
Weija Deltamethrin 80 16.3 ±4.4 3.22E−05 96 8.3 ±1.2 2.11E−05
PBO + deltamethrin 80 43.8 ±10.5 99 32.3 ±1.8
Permethrin 80 12.5 ±2.6 6.79E02 99 5.1 ±0.4 3.28E01
PBO + permethrin 80 7.5 ±1.1 93 7.5 ±1.4
Central Gomoa Obuasi Deltamethrin 100 19.0 ±1.7 1.16E−14 80 20.0 ±1.8 1.79E−12
PBO + deltamethrin 80 93.8 ±1.6 86 90.7 ±1.7
Permethrin 80 3.8 ±1.1 1.88E−08 85 1.2 ±0.5 4.56E−08
PBO + permethrin 80 38.8 ±3.9 94 33.0 ±2.4
Twifo Praso Deltamethrin 80 36.3 ±1.4 3.54E−07 73 13.7 ±1.5 8.78E−06
PBO + deltamethrin 80 82.5 ±4.1 71 52.1 ±3.4
Permethrin 80 21.3 ±1.9 3.00E−10 90 5.6 ±0.5 2.81E−04
PBO + permethrin 80 76.3 ±1.9 81 25.9 ±3.4
Eastern Akuse Deltamethrin 80 37.5 ±3.6 1.2E−09 93 8.6 ±2.1 1.1E−16
PBO + deltamethrin 80 97.5 ±0.6 92 91.3 ±1.7
Permethrin 80 51.3 ±1.4 1.8E−06 90 31.1 ±1.6 1.8E−06
PBO + permethrin 80 98.8 ±0.5 93 72.0 ±2.1
Kade Deltamethrin 80 65.0 ±8.8 4.65E−04 87 13.5 ±0.9 9.93E−09
PBO + deltamethrin 80 100.0 ±0.0 83 72.8 ±2.3
Permethrin 80 17.5 ±0.6 2.45E−13 86 1.2 ±0.5 3.46E−03
PBO + permethrin 80 85.0 ±0.9 80 12.5 ±1.3
Volta Nkwanta Deltamethrin 80 82.4 ±3.0 7.90E02 87 47.1 ±1.4 7.80E−05
PBO + deltamethrin 80 100.0 ±0.0 83 90.4 ±2.6
Permethrin 80 27.5 ±1.9 1.35E−08 82 17.1 ±1.5 3.77E−04
PBO + permethrin 80 77.5 ±4.9 71 46.5 ±3.6
Afife Deltamethrin 80 76.3 ±1.1 7.07E02 83 43.4 ±6.4 1.28E−06
PBO + deltamethrin 80 93.8 ±1.1 85 92.9 ±0.6
Permethrin 80 10.8 ±4.2 2.18E−07 83 31.3 ±2.8 3.94E01
PBO + permethrin 80 45.9 ±2.8 83 26.5 ±1.6
Western Prestea Deltamethrin 80 75.0 ±0.9 1.24E−02 88 13.6 ±0.8 1.47E−15
PBO + deltamethrin 80 100.0 ±0.0 88 97.7 ±0.9
Permethrin 80 91.3 ±0.5 3.82E01 81 27.2 ±4.9 7.04E−10
PBO + Permethrin 80 100.0 ±0.0 88 85.2 ±0.9
Sefwi Wiawso Deltamethrin 80 25.0 ±2.4 1.16E−13 72 30.6 ±3.8 6.14E−07
PBO + deltamethrin 80 98.8 ±0.5 80 75.0 ±1.9
Permethrin 80 15.0 ±2.0 2.66E−15 76 11.8 ±2.3 5.69E−05
PBO + permethrin 80 90.0 ±2.0 83 37.3 ±3.2
  1. PBO piperonyl butoxide, CI confidence interval, nd could not be determined, the numbers in italics showed the non-significant p values