Skip to main content

Table 2 Mortality of Anopheles gambiae s.l. exposed to deltamethrin and permethrin alone as well as PBO + deltamethrin and PBO + permethrin in 2015 and 2016 in the northern sector

From: Evaluation of piperonyl butoxide in enhancing the efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides against resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Ghana

Regions Sentinel site Insecticide 2015 2016
Total tested % Mortality CI 95% mortality p value Total tested % Mortality CI 95% mortality p value
Nothern Sawla Deltamethrin 77 18.2 ±2.1 9.24E−11 96 7.3 ±0.4 3.29E−16
PBO + deltamethrin 79 84.8 ±2.1 95 84.2 ±2.4
Permethrin 79 15.2 ±0.9 1.58E−03 94 5.3 ±1.1 1.61E−02
PBO + permethrin 80 36.3 ±1.0 95 14.7 ±0.9
Wulensi Deltamethrin 80 27.5 ±1.4 2.29E−10 83 0.0 ±0.0 5.55E−13
PBO + deltamethrin 78 100.0 ±0.0 83 62.7 ±2.5
Permethrin 82 42.7 ±2.7 9.25E−05 89 3.4 ±1.0 1.76E−07
PBO + permethrin 80 83.8 ±2.4 88 37.5 ±2.0
Ashanti Konongo Deltamethrin 78 12.8 ±1.5 2.92E−10 89 1.1 ±0.5 4.87E−15
PBO + deltamethrin 79 73.4 ±1.0 84 75.0 ±2.2
Permethrin nd nd nd nd 83 13.3 ±0.6 1.11E−09
PBO + permethrin nd nd nd 83 68.7 ±1.0
Ejura Deltamethrin 79 24.1 ±1.9 1.62E−10 80 41.3 ±0.9 5.18E−07
PBO + deltamethrin 80 92.5 ±2.1 78 98.7 ±0.5
Permethrin 77 15.6 ±2.4 1.61E−04 80 95.0 ±1.3 7.49E−01
PBO + permethrin 78 43.6 ±3.8 78 100.0 ±0.0
Upper East Zebilla Deltamethrin 79 89.9 ±1.5 3.68E−01 84 21.4 ±1.3 1.35E−11
PBO + deltamethrin 80 98.8 ±0.5 91 84.6 ±0.9
Permethrin nd nd nd nd 82 8.5 ±0.9 1.44E−02
PBO + permethrin nd nd nd 85 20.0 ±1.3
Fumbisi Deltamethrin 95 20.0 ±1.2 2.14E−12 81 49.4 ±3.2 3.19E−06
PBO + deltamethrin 88 94.3 ±0.9 85 96.5 ±0.9
Permethrin 84 42.9 ±1.7 1.31E−06 90 17.8 ±1.2 1.29E−04
PBO + permethrin 84 94.0 ±0.5 95 42.1 ±1.8
Upper West Wecheau Deltamethrin 84 20.2 ±1.6 1.62E−09 84 34.5 ±1.6 4.06E−08
PBO + deltamethrin 87 75.9 ±3.2 80 96.3 ±0.5
Permethrin 82 10.4 ±1.3 5.81E−07 87 10.3 ±0.9 3.08E−13
PBO + permethrin 83 49.4 ±3.9 87 80.5 ±1.4
Tumu Deltamethrin 86 38.4 ±0.5 5.32E−07 87 4.6 ±1.3 1.05E−15
PBO + deltamethrin 77 100.0 ±0.0 84 85.7 ±2.9
Permethrin 78 43.6 ±4.0 5.46E−04 98 12.2 ±2.1 1.16E−05
PBO + permethrin 81 75.3 ±0.6 91 42.9 ±3.2
Brong Ahafo Kenyasi Deltamethrin 84 17.9 ±1.0 1.23E−05 91 70.3 ±4.8 6.49E−02
PBO + deltamethrin 84 52.4 ±2.8 80 95.0 ±1.3
Permethrin 84 7.1 ±2.2 7.63E−03 87 63.2 ±3.9 2.04E−02
PBO + permethrin 83 20.5 ±3.5 85 88.2 ±0.7
Kwame Danso Deltamethrin 78 12.8 ±1.9 1.66E−13 84 36.9 ±4.3 1.12E−08
PBO + deltamethrin 83 88.0 ±1.0 86 96.5 ±1.0
Permethrin 89 21.3 ±0.7 7.64E−07 82 13.4 ±1.1 2.73E−06
PBO + permethrin 88 63.6 ±1.6 84 48.8 ±5.3
  1. PBO piperonyl butoxide, CI confidence interval, nd could not be determined, the numbers in italics showed the non-significant p values