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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients by country 2013 (N = 994)

From: Treatment-seeking patterns for malaria in pharmacies in five sub-Saharan African countries

  Ghana (n = 199) Kenya (n = 195) Nigeria (n = 200) Tanzania (n = 200) Uganda (n = 200) p
Patient characteristics
 Sex ratio M:W 0.69 1.11 0.94 0.96 0.82 0.17
 Age (years)
  ≤5 17.4 14.2 11.6 12.4 13.1  
  6–16 10.6 17.0 13.3 18.9 23.1 0.01
  ≥17 72.0 68.8 75.1 68.7 63.8  
History of illness
 Presence of fever before attending outlet 98.5 90.0 100 82.0 96.0 p < 10−4
 Mean days with fever (SD) 2.6 (2.9) 2.5 (1.5) 3.4 (1.8) 2.0 (2.1) 4.1 (5.0) p < 10−4
 Location of malaria diagnosis
  Self-diagnosis 83.4 35.5 38.5 2.0 11.3  
  Health facility 15.6 49.2 39.5 95.5 78.9 p < 10−4
  Pharmacy/drug shop 1.0 13.7 20.0 2.5 9.3  
  Other 0 1.6 2.0 0 0.5  
Diagnosis practices
 Blood test diagnostic 3.5 50.8 38.0 95.0 84.5 p < 10−4
 Type of blood test
  Number 6 73 69 184 152  
  Rapid diagnostic test 0 32.9 34.8 42.4 28.3 p < 10−4
  Microscopy 100 67.1 65.2 57.6 71.7  
 Positive blood test 100 85.8 94.4 91.1 96.4 0.02
 Drug purchaseda 100 90.0 90.8 92.7 96.5 0.69
 ACT purchaseda 100 96.6 88.4 69.7 55.6 p < 10−4
Antimalarial drug prescription and drug purchased
 Drug prescribed 17.6 45.1 34.0 90.0 80.0 p < 10−4
 Drug purchased 100 86.7 92.0 92.0 96.5 p < 10−4
Outlet characteristics
 Type of outlet
  Pharmacy 88.0 100 24.6 87.5 22.5  
  Drug shop 6.8 0 7.5 0 18.0 p < 10−4
  Private health facility 5.2 0 5.0 12.5 59.5  
  Patent medicine vendor 0 0 62.9 0 0  
  1. aAmong patient blood diagnosis tested