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Table 2 Comparison between patients with a drug prescription (Pr+) and patients without a drug prescription (Pr−) by country 2013 (N = 994)

From: Treatment-seeking patterns for malaria in pharmacies in five sub-Saharan African countries

  Ghana Kenya Nigeria Tanzania Uganda
Pr+ (n = 35) Pr− (n = 164) p Pr+ (n = 88) Pr− (n = 107) p Pr+ (n = 68) Pr− (n = 132) p Pr+ (n = 180) Pr− (n = 20) p Pr+ (n = 160) Pr− (n = 40) p
Patient characteristics
 Sex-ratio M:W 0.59 0.71 0.22 0.81 1.43 0.05 1.00 0.91 0.09 1.05 0.43 0.07 0.74 1.22 0.16
 Age (years)
  ≤5 40.0 0.6   19.8 12.5   20.6 13.7   22.9 15.0   26.4 22.5  
  6–16 5.7 5.5 <10−4 24.4 6.7 0.001 17.6 9.8 0.09 8.4 5.0 0.58 13.2 10.0 0.72
  ≥17 54.3 93.9   55.8 80.8   61.8 76.5   68.7 80.0   60.4 67.5  
History of illness
 Presence of fever 97.1 98.8 0.56 98.8 82.5 0.001 100 100 83.3 70.0 0.14 96.3 95.0 0.71
 Mean days with fever (SD) 4.0 (5.4) 2.3 (1.9) 0.002 2.6 (1.6) 2.4 (1.3) 0.56 3.9 (2.1) 3.1 (1.6) 0.002 1.9 (3.9) 3.6 (3.9) 0.002 4.3 (5.4) 3.3 (2.9) 0.24
Diagnostic practices
 Location of malaria diagnosis
  Self-diagnosis 8.6 99.4   1.2 66.0   0 59.7   0 20   1.9 51.3  
  Health facility 88.6 0.0 <10−4 90.7 15.0 <10−4 85.1 17.1 <10−4 99.4 60.0 <10−4 92.9 21.6 <10−4
  Pharmacy/drug shop 2.8 0.6   8.1 10.0   14.9 23.2   0.6 20.0   5.1 27.0  
 Blood test diagnostic 20.0 0 <10−4 94.3 15.0 <10−4 79.4 16.7 <10−4 99.4 60.0 <10−4 96.9 35.0 <10−4
Type of outlet
 Pharmacy 82.9 89.1 0.30 100 100 34.3 19.7 0.02 86.7 95.0 0.29 20.7 30.0 0.20
 Othera 17.1 10.9   0 0   65.7 80.3   13.3 5.0   79.3 70.0  
 Median price of drug purchased 1.05 1.37 0.008 3.69 1.73 0.04 3.22 2.28 0.04 1.39 1.37 0.87 2.92 3.73 0.30
  1. aThis category includes drug shops, private health facilities and patent medicine vendors