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Table 4 Comparisons between patient purchased ACT drugs (ACT+) and patient purchased non-ACT drugs (ACT−) by country (N = 923), 2013

From: Treatment-seeking patterns for malaria in pharmacies in five sub-Saharan African countries

  Ghana Kenya Nigeria Tanzania Uganda
ACT+ (n = 193) ACT− (n = 4) p ACT+ (n = 152) ACT− (n = 16) p ACT+ (n = 148) ACT− (n = 36) p ACT+ (n = 128) ACT− (n = 57) p ACT+ (n = 109) ACT− (n = 80) p
Patient characteristics
 Sex-ratio M:W 0.69 0.33 0.52 1.04 1.70 0.38 0.95 0.80 0.65 0.78 1.85 0.008 0.60 1.10 0.04
 Age (years)
  ≤5 6.2 75.0   16.2 6.3   16.2 11.1   29.1 7.0   21.3 32.5  
  6–16 5.2 25.0 <10−4 15.5 6.3 0.28 14.2 2.8 0.09 9.4 7.0 0.002 13.9 10.0 0.20
  ≥17 88.6 0   68.2 87.6   69.6 86.2   61.4 86.0   64.8 57.5  
History of illness
 Presence of fever 98.4 100 0.80 91.0 90.9 0.98 100 100 90.6 71.9 0.001 96.3 96.2 0.98
 Mean days with fever (SD) 2.4 (2.1) 3.5 (2.5) 0.31 2.5 (1.5) 2.1 (0.7) 0.40 3.4 (1.9) 3.0 (1.6) 0.12 1.9 (1.8) 2.5 (2.8) 0.11 3.2 (3.6) 5.3 (6.5) 0.01
Diagnostic practices
 Location of malaria diagnosis
  Self-diagnosis 84.9 25.0   32.2 61.5   33.3 67.6   0 3.5   12.9 9.3  
  Health facility and pharmacy 15.1 75.0 0.001 67.8 38.5 0.03 66.7 32.4 0.0002 100 96.5 0.03 87.1 90.7 0.45
 Blood test diagnostic 3.1 0 0.72 55.3 18.8 0.005 41.2 22.2 0.03 96.9 94.7 0.48 81.7 88.7 0.18
Type of outlet
 Pharmacy 88.6 50.0 0.02 100 100 27.2 13.9 0.09 87.5 91.2 0.46 29.4 11.3 0.01
 Other 11.4 50.0   0 0   72.8 86.1   12.5 8.8   70.6 87.7  
 Have a prescription 90.9 0.1 0.001 97.4 2.6 0.006 37.2 19.4 0.04 90.6 92.9 0.60 76.1 86.3 0.08
 Median price of purchased drug 1.32 3.69 0.01 2.02 1.67 0.71 3.22 1.24 <10−4 2.01 1.14 0.001 4.48 1.14 <10−4