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Table 4 Characteristics of individuals that reported a travel history that was within Swaziland by positive and negative cases, with a percentage (%) of the total group size (n) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

From: Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010–2014

Variable Characteristics Risk factors
Positive cases Negative cases p2) OR (95% CI) Pr(>|z|) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Pr(>|z|)
n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI)
Total 177   711       
Age class      0.0078     
<1 1 0.56 (−0.54–1.67) 29 4.08 (2.62–5.53)   1   1  
1–4.9 15 8.47 (4.37–12.58) 59 8.3 (6.27–10.33)   7.37 (1.39–136.55) 0.0587 5.34 (0.91–101.92) 0.1240
5–14.9 25 14.12 (8.99–19.26) 78 10.97 (8.67–13.27)   9.29 (1.83–169.76) 0.0324 4.57 (0.76–88.65) 0.1681
15–24.9 27 15.25 (9.96–20.55) 181 25.46 (22.26–28.66)   4.33 (0.87–78.63) 0.1578 3.18 (0.58–59.41) 0.2777
25–44.9 66 37.29 (30.16–44.41) 256 36.01 (32.48–39.53)   7.48 (1.55–134.43) 0.0498 2.96 (0.56–54.7) 0.3047
45–64.9 15 8.47 (4.37-12.58) 81 11.39 (9.06–13.73)   5.37 (1.02–99.25) 0.1109 2.25 (0.36–43.9) 0.4653
65–99 1 0.56 (−0.54–1.67) 19 2.67 (1.49–3.86)   1.52 (0.06–40.18) 0.7697 1.39 (0.05–38.01) 0.8252
Didn’t respond* 27 15.25 (9.96–20.55) 8 1.13 (0.35–1.9)      
Occupation      0.0038     
Unemployed 22 12.43 (7.57–17.29) 245 34.46 (30.97–37.95)   1   1  
Agriculture 10 5.65 (2.25–9.05) 85 11.95 (9.57–14.34)   1.31 (0.57–2.81) 0.5012 0.8 (0.33–1.85) 0.6123
Manufacturing 3 1.69 (−0.21–3.6) 7 0.98 (0.26–1.71)   4.77 (0.98–18.54) 0.0311 2.89 (0.57–11.7) 0.1549
Office or clerical work 4 2.26 (0.07–4.45) 8 1.13 (0.35–1.9)   5.57 (1.4–19.23) 0.0084 4.74 (1.13–17.54) 0.0231
Other 18 10.17 (5.72–14.62) 197 27.71 (24.42–31)   1.02 (0.53–1.95) 0.9582 0.6 (0.28–1.25) 0.1775
Other manual labour 7 3.95 (1.08–6.83) 27 3.8 (2.39–5.2)   2.89 (1.06–7.12) 0.0269 1.88 (0.65–5.04) 0.2236
Small-market sales or trade 0   12 1.69 (0.74–2.63)      
Student 27 15.25 (9.96–20.55) 125 17.58 (14.78–20.38)   2.41 (1.32–4.43) 0.0043 1.49 (0.65–3.36) 0.3373
Army 0   2 0.28 (−0.11–0.67)      
Didn’t respond* 86 48.59 (41.22–55.95) 3 0.42 (−0.05–0.9)      
Gender      <0.0001     
Female 64 36.16 (29.08–43.24) 388 54.57 (50.91–58.23)   1   1  
Male 112 63.28 (56.18–70.38) 323 45.43 (41.77–49.09)   2.10 (1.49–2.96) <0.0001 2.77 (1.68–4.65) 0.0001
Didn’t respond* 1 0.56 (−0.54–1.67) 0       
Nationality      <0.0001     
Swazi 165 93.22 (89.52–96.92) 710 99.86 (99.58–100)   1   1  
Mozambican 8 4.52 (1.46–7.58) 1 0.14 (−0.13–0.42)   34.42 (6.25–640.85) 0.0009 0.9954
South African 1 0.56 (−0.54–1.67)   0      
Portuguese 1 0.56 (−0.54–1.67)   0      
Zimbabwean 2 1.13 (−0.43–2.69)   0      
  1. Risk factors are presented as odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the univariate model and adjusted OR when all variables were use in a multivariate model. p values from Wald test (Pr(>|z|)) for individual variables and p from X2 of the model tested against the null hypothesis. Those variables with an (*) were not included in the models