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Table 2 Associations between malaria infection status during pregnancy and measures of placental malaria

From: Relationships between infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy, measures of placental malaria, and adverse birth outcomes

Risk factor Category Risk Univariate Multivariate
RR (95% CI) p value aRR (95% CI) p value
Placental blood positive for malaria parasites by microscopya (n = 8)
 Malaria burden in pregnancy None 0/52 (0%) Reference group Reference group
Low 1/156 (0.6%)
High 7/72 (9.7%) 20.2 (2.52–162.2) 0.005 14.2 (1.80–111.6) 0.01
 Gravidity Multigravida 1/182 (0.6%) Reference group Reference group
Primigravida 7/98 (7.1%) 13.0 (1.62–104.5) 0.02 9.22 (1.16–73.4) 0.04
 IPTp drug DP 3/184 (1.6%) Reference group Reference group
SP 5/96 (5.2%) 3.19 (0.78–13.1) 0.11 1.16 (0.32–4.15) 0.82
Placental blood positive for malaria parasites by LAMPa (n = 24)
 Malaria burden in pregnancy None 1/52 (1.9%) Reference group Reference group
Low 5/156 (3.2%)
High 18/72 (25.0%) 8.67 (3.57–21.0) < 0.001 4.06 (1.73–9.51) 0.001
 Gravidity Multigravida 8/182 (4.4%) Reference group Reference group
Primigravida 16/98 (16.3%) 3.71 (1.65–8.38) 0.002 3.05 (1.41–6.62) 0.005
 IPTp drug DP 5/184 (2.7%) Reference group Reference group
SP 19/96 (19.8%) 7.28 (2.80–18.9) < 0.001 3.86 (1.56–9.56) 0.003
Parasites or pigment on placental histopathology (n = 105)
 Malaria burden in pregnancy None 4/52 (7.7%) Reference group Reference group
Low 47/157 (29.9%) 3.89 (1.47–10.3) 0.006 3.27 (1.32–8.12) 0.01
High 54/73 (74.0%) 9.62 (3.71–24.9) < 0.001 7.07 (2.84–17.6) < 0.001
 Gravidity Multigravida 36/182 (19.8%) Reference group Reference group
Primigravida 69/100 (69.0%) 3.49 (2.53–4.81) < 0.001 2.89 (2.12–3.94) < 0.001
 IPTp drug DP 56/184 (30.4%) Reference group Reference group
SP 49/98 (50.0%) 1.64 (1.22–2.21) 0.001 1.02 (0.79–1.32) 0.87
  1. aResults missing for 2 of the 282 participants