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Table 3 Associations between a composite indicator of malaria in pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes

From: Relationships between infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy, measures of placental malaria, and adverse birth outcomes

Risk factor Category Low birth weight (< 2500 gm) Preterm birth (< 37 weeks) Small for gestational age (< 10‰)
  Malaria burden during pregnancy Placental malaria Risk aRRa (95% CI) p Risk aRRa (95% CI) p Risk aRRa (95% CI) p
Composite indicator of malaria in pregnancy 1 None None 6/47 (12.8%) Reference 2/47 (4.3%) Reference 9/47 (19.2%) Reference
2 Low None 8/110 (7.3%) 0.56 (0.20–1.55) 0.27 5/110 (4.6%) 1.06 (0.22–5.08) 0.95 16/110 (14.6%) 0.74 (0.35–1.58) 0.44
3 High None 3/18 (16.7%) 1.41 (0.36–5.54) 0.63 2/18 (11.1%) 3.33 (0.51–21.6) 0.21 4/18 (22.2%) 1.16 (0.40–3.36) 0.79
4 Any Pigment onlyb 10/82 (12.2%) 0.77 (0.28–2.13) 0.61 9/82 (11.0%) 1.74 (0.34–8.96) 0.51 17/82 (20.7%) 0.90 (0.42–1.92) 0.78
5 Any Parasites detectedc 11/25 (44.0%) 2.85 (0.92–8.90) 0.07 8/25 (32.0%) 5.88 (1.02–34.0) 0.048 11/25 (44.0%) 1.85 (0.79–4.36) 0.16
Gravidity Multigravida 18/182 (9.9%) Reference 9/182 (5.0%) Reference 30/182 (16.5%) Reference
Primigravida 20/100 (20.0%) 1.60 (0.80–3.23) 0.19 17/100 (17.0%) 2.42 (0.84–7.00) 0.10 27/100 (27.0%) 1.43 (0.86–2.39) 0.17
IPTp drug DP 22/184 (12.0%) Reference 16/184 (8.7%) Reference 34/184 (18.5%) Reference
SP 16/98 (16.3%) 0.89 (0.44–1.83) 0.76 10/98 (10.2%) 0.67 (0.27–1.66) 0.39 23/98 (23.5%) 1.04 (0.63–1.71) 0.89
  1. aAdjusted relative risk
  2. bBy histopathology
  3. cBy placental blood smear, placental LAMP, or histopathology