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Table 2 Influence of age and exposure on antibody levels to PfGPI in Papua New Guinean children

From: IgG antibodies to synthetic GPI are biomarkers of immune-status to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in young children

  P. falciparum P. vivax
n Geom mean (95% CI)* P value n Geom mean (95% CI)* P value
Age (months)
 All children
  12–17 81 0.091 (0.074–0.111) 0.53    
  18–23 49 0.083 (0.061–0.114)    
  24–29 38 0.117 (0.080–0.170)    
  30–35 45 0.108 (0.075–0.155)    
  36–41 10 0.081 (0.032–0.204)    
 PCR−
  12–17 55 0.076 (0.060–0.097) 0.009 37 0.067 (0.051–0.087) 0.221
  18–23 22 0.053 (0.036–0.078) 19 0.074 (0.043–0.128)
  24–29 14 0.160 (0.079–0.323) 18 0.126 (0.086–0.185)
  30–35 16 0.113 (0.062–0.207) 19 0.083 (0.047–0.146)
  36–41 4 0.155 (0.014–1.737) 5 0.087 (0.049–0.156)
 PCR+
  12–17 26 0.131 (0.090–0.192) 0.43 44 0.118 (0.088–0.157) 0.69
  18–23 27 0.120 (0.078–0.186)   30 0.090 (0.060–0.133)
  24–29 24 0.097 (0.062–0.153)   20 0.109 (0.056–0.210)
  30–35 29 0.106 (0.065–0.170)   26 0.131 (0.080–0.215)
  36–41 6 0.053 (0.018–0.154)   5 0.075 (0.007–0.773)
Infection status
 PCR− 111 0.085 (0.070–0.103) 0.084 98 0.081 (0.067–0.098) 0.036
 PCR+ 112 0.108 (0.088–0.133) 125 0.109 (0.089–0.134)  
 Infection free 51 0.061 (0.047–0.077) 0.004    
 Pf and Pv co-infected 65 0.107 (0.079–0.144)    
  1. Geom mean, geometric mean; n, number; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Pf, Plasmodium falciparum; Pv, Plasmodium vivax
  2. * Optical density at 450 nm. IgG levels were log10 transformed and P values calculated using two sample t tests or ANOVA. P < 0.05 were considered significant