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Table 1 Univariate and multivariate predictors of rice farmer’s acceptance to contribute extra labour time for future Bti activities

From: Community-based biological control of malaria mosquitoes using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in Rwanda: community awareness, acceptance and participation

Variable Univariate OR (95% CI) p value Multivariate OR (95% CI) p value
Age (years)
 20–34 1    
 35–50 1.173 (0.621–2.214) 0.623   
 51 + 0.741 (0.381–1.442) 0.377   
Gender
 Male 1.567 (0.957–2.567) 0.074   
 Female 1    
Marital status
 Married or living together 2.059 (1.094–3.875) 0.025   
 Single/divorced/widow 1    
Educational level
 None 1    
 Primary 1.607 (0.921–2.806) 0.095   
 Post-primary/vocational 1.059 (0.182–6.156) 0.949   
 Secondary school or higher 1.324 (0.379–4.619) 0.660   
Family size
 1–5 people 1.601 (0.977–2.625) 0.062   
 6 + 1    
Involvement in rice farming (years)
 0–5 6.344 (2.061–19.529) 0.001 4.939 (1.504–16.218) 0.008
 6–14 3.229 (1.889–5.521) 0.000 1.900 (1.007–3.587) 0.048
 15 + 1    
Household income from rice cultivation
 0–50% 2.155 (1.226–3.788) 0.008   
 51% + 1    
Capital given for cooperative membership
 0–3000 RWF 7.765 (3.697–16.308) 0.000 6.103 (2.639–14.113) 0.000
 3001–20,000 RWF 2.144 (1.211–3.794) 0.009 1.870 (0.966–3.620) 0.063
 20,001 RWF+ 1    
Rice profitable
 No/hardly/modestly 1.995 (1.197–3.325) 0.008 1.843 (1.021–3.328) 0.043
 Yes, very much 1    
Malaria transmission
 No 1    
 Mosquito/Anopheles 1.441 (0.617–3.365) 0.399   
Malaria symptoms
 1–3 symptoms 1    
 4 + 3.114 (1.658–5.848) 0.000 3.115 (1.565–6.203) 0.001
Frequent mosquito bites in marshlands
 Almost never/once in a while 1    
 Often/very often 1.624 (0.572–4.611) 0.362   
Rice cultivation as potential mosquito breeding site
 Not at all important/minor importance 1    
 Important/very important 0.784 (0.211–2.916) 0.716   
Ever heard about larviciding
 No 1    
 Yes 3.985 (1.377–11.534) 0.011   
Larviciding safety on rice consumers
 None/little 1    
 Much/very much 1.557 (0.852–2.846) 0.150   
Larviciding safety on rice farmers
 None/little 1    
 Much/very much 1.490 (0.814–2.727) 0.196   
Larviciding safety on living organisms
 None/little 1    
 Much/very much 2.442 (1.217–4.901) 0.012 2.357 (1.114–4.985) 0.025
Larviciding reduce mosquito abundance
 None/little 1    
 Much/very much 1.386 (0.827–2.322) 0.215   
Larviciding reduce malaria risk
 None/little 1    
 Much/very much 1.003 (0.612–1.644) 0.990   
  1. The italics values in the “univariate” column represent the significant variables at a screening p value of < 0.25 that were included in the final multivariate analysis
  2. The italics values in “multivariate” column represent the statistically significant variables in the final model