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Table 1 Model parameters

From: Cost-effectiveness of malaria preventive treatment for HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa

Variable Value Distribution Source
Demographic
 Malaria prevalence in HIV-infected pregnant women 31.0% Beta(3.1,6.9) [46]
 CD4 count 390 Normal(390,220) [47]
Incidence
 Relative risk of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant woman 1.6 Gamma(1.6,1) [48]
 CD4 change while on ART 70 Normal(70,100) [49]
Mortality
 Neonatal mortality risk due to low birth weight 6.93% Beta(0.007,0.093) [30]
 Annual mortality due to malaria during pregnancy 0.33% Beta(0.033,9.967) [30]
 Annual mortality due to anaemia in pregnancy 1.0% Beta(0.1,9.9) [30]
 Annual HIV mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women 0.0161% Beta(0.16,9.84) [50]
 Annual HIV mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women on ART 0.007% Beta(0.07,9.93) [47, 50]
 Relative risk of HIV mortality of CTX while on ART 0.47 Beta(8,9) [35]
DALY calculations
 Annual discount rate 3% 3% [51]
 Average age (years) 22.83 22.83 [29]
 Life expectancy for women aged 20–24 (years) 47.24 Normal(47,3) [32]
 Life expectancy at birth (years) 57.96 Normal(58,3) [32]
 Disability weight—malaria during pregnancy 0.21 Normal(0.21,0.03) [31]
 Disability weight—maternal anaemia due to malaria 0.06 Normal(0.06,0.02) [31]
 Disability weight—low birth weight 0.11 0.11 [33]
 Length of disability (years)—malaria during pregnancy 0.01 Gamma(2.0,0.004) [30]
 Length of disability (years)—maternal anaemia due to malaria 0.06 Gamma(1.2,0.04) [52]
 Length of disability (years)—low birth weight 57.96 Gamma(32,1.8) [32]
Costs (USD 2015)
 Drug cost
  Intermittent preventive treatment (per dose) $0.20 Normal(0.2,0.01) [30, 53]
  Cotrimoxazole, 480 mg twice daily (per year) $6.28 Gamma(3.9,1.61) [54]
 Healthcare labor costa
  Labor time per IPTp-SP administration (min) 8.31 Gamma(13.85,0.6) [30]
  Nurses’ monthly cost of labor 542.76 Gamma(29.3,18.5) [30]
 Household cost
  Antenatal care visit direct cost 0.47 Gamma(92.4,0.005) [30]
  Antenatal care visit indirect cost 1.17 Gamma(146,0.008) [30]
  ART treatment (per year) $193.61 Gamma(2,97) [55]
Efficacy
 Low birth weight
  Relative risk baseline (IPTp-SP 0–1 dose) vs. 2 dose IPTp-SP 3.25 Gamma(1.1,2.95) [45]
  Incidence per 1000 women given IPTp-SP 2 dosesb 175 (91–222)a [29]
  Relative risk IPTp-SP 3 doses vs. 2 doses 0.86 Normal(0.86,0.21) [29]
  Relative risk CTX vs. 2 dose IPTp-SP 1.16 Gamma (1.05,1.1) [34, 56]
 Maternal parasitaemia
  Relative risk baseline (IPTp-SP 0–1 dose) vs. 2 dose IPTp-SP 1.4 Gamma(1.15,1.2) [19]
  Incidence per 1000 women given IPTp-SP 2 dosesb 112 (0–359)a [29]
  Relative risk IPTp-SP 3 doses vs. 2 doses 0.26 Normal(0.26,0.08) [29]
  Relative risk CTX vs. 2 dose IPTp-SP 0.44 Lognormal(−1.05,0.7) [19, 34]
  Relative risk CTX + ART vs. CTX 0.38 Lognormal(−1.2,0.7) [21]
 Anaemia
  Relative risk baseline (IPTp-SP 0–1 dose) vs. 2 dose IPTp-SP 1.03 Gamma(0.85,1.2) [45]
  Incidence per 1000 women given IPTp-SP 2 dosesb 582 (333–795)a [29]
  Relative risk IPTp-SP 3 doses vs. 2 doses 582 Normal(0.96,0.07) [29]
  Relative risk CTX vs. 2 dose IPTp-SP 0.72 Normal(0.72,0.05) [19]
  1. ART antiretroviral therapy for HIV, CTX cotrimoxazole, DALY disability-adjusted life year, IPTp-SP intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine
  2. aLabor cost calculations assume that maximum hours of work is 48 h per week, 4.3 weeks per month [57]
  3. bAge-adjusted incidence per 1000 women (the range is provided to illustrate low and high risk) under the 2-IPT Low Strategy (the Reference Strategy)