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Table 1 Assigning outcomes for estimating treatment efficacy under current recommendations.

From: Statistical methods to derive efficacy estimates of anti-malarials for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: pitfalls and challenges

End-point for day X (X = 28 or 42) Cumulative success or failure probability (Kaplan–Meier analysis) Proportion (per-protocol analysis)
Adequate clinical and parasitological response at day X Success Success
Early treatment failure Failure Failure
Late clinical failure before day 7 Failure Failure
Late clinical failure or late parasitological failure on or after day 7
 Falciparum recrudescence Failure Failure
 Falciparum reinfection Censored day of reinfection Excluded from analysis
 Other species with falciparum recrudescence Failure Failure
 Other species infection Censored day of infection Excluded from analysis
 Undermined or indeterminate PCR Excluded from PCR-corrected analysis Excluded from analysis
Loss to follow-up Censored last day of follow-up according to timetable Excluded from analysis
Withdrawal and protocol violation Censored last day of follow-up according to timetable before withdrawal or protocol violation Excluded from analysis