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Table 1 Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of survey participants in the 6 months–4 years age category, by study site

From: Longitudinal estimation of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in relation to malaria prevention measures in six sub-Saharan African countries

  Burkina Faso, Nanoro Gabon, Lambaréné Ghana, Agogo Kenya, Kombewa Malawi, Lilongwe Tanzania, Bagamoyo Tanzania, Korogwe Ghana, Kintampo
Survey 1, N 423 398 397 400 400 392 389 401
 Rural location, % (95% CI) 100 (99.1–100) 31.7 (27.1–36.5) 36.0 (31.3–41.0) 98.8 (97.1–99.6) 0.5 (0.1–1.8) 100 (99.1–100) 86.1 (82.3–89.4) 48.6 (43.6–53.6)
 Closed water source, % (95% CI) 60.5 (55.7–65.2) 71.9 (67.2–76.2) 94.2 (91.4–96.3) 44.0 (39.1–49.0) 99.3 (97.8–99.8) 23.0 (18.9–27.4) 53.0 (47.9–58.0) 71.3 (66.6–75.7)
 Electricity present, % (95% CI) 1.7 (0.7–3.4) 76.1 (71.6–80.2) 73.6 (68.9–77.8) 3.5 (1.9–5.8) 14.8 (11.4–18.6) 4.3 (2.5–6.9) 4.6 (2.8–7.2) 44.9 (39.9–49.9)
 Malaria treatment in past 14 days, n (%) 2 (0.5) 7 (1.8) 58 (14.6) 86 (21.5) 54 (13.5) 12 (3.1) 28 (7.2) 60 (15.0)
 Slept under bed net the night before, n (%) 141 (33.3) 292 (73.4) 149 (37.5) 324 (81.0) 227 (56.8) 371 (94.6) 275 (70.7) 158 (39.4)
 No use of repellent in past 7 days, n (%) 416 (98.3) 187 (47.0) 229 (57.7) 390 (97.5) 390 (97.5) 388 (99.0) 367 (94.3) 296 (73.8)
 IRS in past 12 months, n (%) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 31 (7.8) 4 (1.0) 16 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (1.7)
 Insecticide spray use in past 7 days, n (%) 3 (0.7) 16 (4.0) 44 (11.1) 3 (0.8) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) 4 (1.0) 29 (7.2)
Survey 2, N 402 398 400 400 399 398 399 401
 Rural location, % (95% CI) 100 (99.1–100) 22.6 (18.6–27.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.9) 96.3 (93.9–97.9) 0.0 (0.0–0.9) 84.9 (81.0–88.3) 84.2 (80.3–87.6) 67.1 (62.2–71.7)
 Closed water source, % (95% CI) 73.4 (68.8–77.6) 76.4 (71.9–80.5) 97.5 (95.5–98.8) 43.8 (38.8–48.8) 98.2 (96.4–99.3) 32.4 (27.8–37.3) 63.4 (58.5–68.1) 57.9 (52.9–62.7)
 Electricity present, % (95% CI) 1.1 (0.3–2.5) 84.9 (81.0–88.3) 65.8 (60.9–70.4) 8.8 (6.2–12.0) 19.0 (15.3–23.3) 1.5 (0.6–3.3) 5.0 (3.1–7.6) 41.6 (36.8–46.6)
 Malaria treatment in past 14 days, n (%) 4 (1.0) 11 (2.8) 48 (12.0) 75 (18.8) 23 (5.8) 14 (3.5) 21 (5.3) 88 (21.9)
 Slept under bed net the night before, n (%) 293 (72.9) 296 (74.4) 285 (71.3) 367 (91.8) 251 (62.9) 358 (89.9) 363 (91.0) 206 (51.4)
 No use of repellent in past 7 days, n (%) 402 (100) 202 (50.8) 316 (79.0) 389 (97.3) 314 (78.7) 390 (98.0) 391 (98.0) 322 (80.3)
 IRS in past 12 months, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 8 (2.0) 5 (1.3) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Insecticide spray use in past 7 days, n (%) 0 (0.0) 10 (2.5) 14 (3.5) 4 (1.0) 16 (4.0) 2 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 13 (3.2)
Survey 3, N 395 399 399 401 400 399 400 400
 Rural location, % (95% CI) 100 (99.1–100) 35.8 (31.1–40.8) 13.8 (10.6–17.6) 95.3 (92.7–97.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.9) 100 (99.1–100) 89.0 (85.5–91.9) 82.0 (77.9–85.6)
 Closed water source, % (95% CI) 75.9 (71.4–80.1) 62.4 (57.5–67.2) 90.5 (87.2–93.2) 30.7 (26.2–35.4) 98.5 (96.8–99.4) 39.1 (34.3–44.1) 44.5 (39.6–49.5) 56.0 (51.0–60.9)
 Electricity present, % (95% CI) 2.3 (1.0–4.3) 68.9 (64.1–73.4) 74.9 (70.4–79.1) 8.7 (6.2–11.9) 21.0 (17.1–25.3) 1.3 (0.4–2.9) 5.8 (3.7–8.5) 31.3 (26.7–36.0)
 Malaria treatment in past 14 days, n (%) 32 (8.1) 2 (0.5) 52 (13.0) 78 (19.5) 26 (6.5) 10 (2.5) 36 (9.0) 73 (18.3)
 Slept under bed net the night before, n (%) 352 (89.1) 250 (62.7) 242 (60.7) 362 (90.3) 330 (82.5) 362 (90.7) 339 (84.8) 348 (87.0)
 No use of repellent in past 7 days, n (%) 387 (98.0) 165 (41.4) 304 (76.2) 387 (96.5) 383 (95.8) 395 (99.0) 388 (97.0) 369 (92.3)
 IRS in past 12 months, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5)
 Insecticide spray use in past 7 days, n (%) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.0) 21 (5.3) 6 (1.5) 8 (2.0) 3 (0.8) 3 (0.8) 3 (0.8)
Survey 4, N 399 399 395
 Rural location, % (95% CI) 100 (99.1–100) 35.1 (30.4–40.0) 82.3 (78.1–85.9)
 Closed water source, % (95% CI) 87.5 (83.8–90.6) 74.2 (69.6–78.4) 71.4 (66.7–75.8)
 Electricity present, % (95% CI) 2.0 (0.9–3.9) 76.7 (72.2–80.8) 24.8 (20.6–29.4)
 Malaria treatment in past 14 days, n (%) 29 (7.3) 1 (0.3) 54 (13.7)
 Slept under bed net the night before, n (%) 375 (94.0) 212 (53.1) 319 (80.8)
 No use of repellent in past 7 days, n (%) 393 (98.5) 164 (41.1) 348 (88.1)
 IRS in past 12 months, n (%) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5)
 Insecticide spray use in past 7 days, n (%) 3 (0.8) 10 (2.5) 14 (3.5)
  1. Closed water source: piped water, tube well, dug well, protected well. No use of repellent in past 7 days: no use of mosquito coil, insecticide spray, commercial or traditional repellent. Percentages were computed without considering the missing values
  2. M months of age, Y years of age, N number of participants included in the analyses, n (%) number/percentage of participants in a given category, CI confidence interval, IRS indoor residual spray, centres not included in the fourth survey