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Table 2 Genotypic and kdr allele frequencies in Anopheles arabiensis from eight national sentinel sites in Ethiopia, 2015

From: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia (2012–2016): a nationwide study for insecticide resistance monitoring

Region Village/site Insecticide Survival status after exposure # mosquitoes tested Homozygote mutation (RR) Heterozygote mutation (RS) Homozygote wild type (SS) Kdr allele frequency χ 2 test p value % mortality in WHO tests Resistance status
R S
Oromia Chewaka DDT Alive 15 1 6 6 0.31 0.69 0.345 0.557 14 R
Dead 5 1 1 3 0.3 0.7 1.372 0.242
Deltamethrin Alive 15 2 4 5 0.36 0.64 1.441 0.23 48 R
Dead 5 1 1 0 0.75 0.25 1.889 0.169
Asendabo DDT Alive 30 14 6 0 0.85 0.15 3.749 0.0528 4 R
Dead 4 0 1 3 0.13 0.88 0.0892 0.765
Deltamethrin Alive 30 16 4 4 0.75 0.25 7.126 0.0076 32 R
Dead 6 2 2 1 0.6 0.4 0.282 0.595
Ziway-Dugda DDT Alive 15 3 4 3 0.5 0.5 1.988 0.164
Dead
Deltamethrin Alive 15 3 4 3 0.5 0.5 1.988 0.164 32 R
Dead 10 0 3 5 0.19 0.81 0.734 0.391
Amhara Bahir Dar DDT Alive 15 3 4 1 0.63 0.37 3.287 0.0698 11 R
Dead 5 0 1 3 0.13 0.87 0.262 0.609
Deltamethrin Alive 15 3 6 3 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.439 25 R
Dead 5 0 1 3 0.13 0.87 0.262 0.609
SNNPR Halaba DDT Alive 15 8 1 0 0.94 0.06 2.42 0.12 25 R
Dead 5 1 0 2 0.3 0.7 2.855 0.0911
Deltamethrin Alive 15 5 2 1 0.75 0.25 3.741 0.0531 43 R
Dead 5 2 1 1 0.63 0.37 0.906 0.341
Tigray Alamata DDT Alive 9 9 0 0 1 0 40 R
Dead 5 3 1 0 0.88 0.12 0.271 0.602
Deltamethrin Alive 8 6 0 0 1 0 57 R
Dead 3 1 0 0 1 0
Afar Amibara DDT Alive 14 6 2 1 0.78 0.22 2.535 0.111 48 R
Dead 5 1 2 2 0.4 0.6 0.139 0.709
Deltamethrin Alive 15 2 7 3 0.46 0.54 0.893 0.345 49 R
Dead 5 1 3 1 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.655
Gambela Lare DDT Alive 30 17 10 3 0.74 0.26 0.733 0.392 24 R
Dead 5 0 4 0 0.5 0.5 3.4 0.0652
Deltamethrin Alive 30 18 3 3 0.81 0.19 7.746 0.00538 11 R
Dead 5 1 1 0 0.75 0.25 1.889 0.169