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Table 1 Statistics relating to the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia from the nationally representative household surveys (the demographic health survey (DHS), the malaria indicator survey (MIS) and the HIV/AIDS and malaria indicator survey)

From: Malaria prevalence metrics in low- and middle-income countries: an assessment of precision in nationally-representative surveys

Country Survey, year, and months Number of survey clusters (number missing geographic coordinates) Number of children under five Simple spatial random sample (mean proportion) Bias Simulated proportion. Mean; median; (95% CrI) Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean; median; (95% CrI) Design Effect. Mean (hdeff); median; (95% CrI) Effective sample size (ESS). Mean; median; (95% CrI) Percentage increase or decrease (95% CrI) in ESS compared to actual survey sample
Kenya MIS 2007 June to July 200 (1) 3423 0.07 − 0.01 0.09; 0.09 (0.08 to 0.1) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.06; 1.06 (1.03 to 1.1) 6805; 6814 (6575 to 6983) 99.07 (92.08 to 104)
Kenya MIS 2010 July to August 240 (8) 5104 0.14 0.00 0.14; 0.14 (0.13 to 0.14) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.06; 1.06 (1.04 to 1.09) 6788; 6797 (6584 to 6953) 33.17 (29 to 36.23)
Kenya MIS 2015 July to August 246 (0) 4063 0.09 − 0.01 0.10; 0.10 (0.09 to 0.11) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.02; 1.02 (1.01 to 1.04) 7211; 7218 (7099 to 7288) 77.65 (74.72 to 79.37)
Liberia MIS 2008 to 2009 December to March 150 (0) 4611 0.36 0.00 0.36; 0.36 (0.34 to 0.38) 0.02; 0.02 (0.01 to 0.03) 1.54; 1.54 (1.38 to 1.73) 2930; 2930 (2597 to 3254) − 36.46 (− 43.68 to − 29.43)
Liberia MIS 2011 September to December 150 (0) 3692 0.52 0.03 0.49; 0.49 (0.47 to 0.51) 0.03; 0.03 (0.02 to 0.04) 1.83; 1.82 (1.58 to 2.12) 2477; 2476 (2123 to 2843) − 32.94 (− 42.5 to − 23)
Madagascar MIS 2011 March to May 268 (1) 7138 0.06 0.00 0.06; 0.06 (0.05 to 0.07) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.03; 1.03 (1.02 to 1.04) 8349; 8354 (8234 to 8437) 17.04 (15.35 to 18.2)
Madagascar MIS 2013 May to June 274 (0) 6288 0.07 − 0.01 0.08; 0.08 (0.07 to 0.09) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.03; 1.03 (1.02 to 1.04) 8538; 8544 (8414 to 8630) 35.88 (33.81 to 37.25)
Malawi MIS 2012 March to April 140 (0) 2436 0.39 0.01 0.39; 0.39 (0.37 to 0.4) 0.01; 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) 1.35; 1.34 (1.23 to 1.49) 2604; 2609 (2352 to 2857) 7.1 (− 3.45 to 17.28)
Malawi MIS 2014 May to June 140 (0) 2249 0.32 0.03 0.29; 0.29 (0.27 to 0.31) 0.01; 0.01 (0.01 to 0.01) 1.24; 1.24 (1.15 to 1.35) 2827; 2831 (2592 to 3042) 25.88 (15.25 to 35.26)
Nigeria MIS 2010 October to December 239 (0) 4950 0.47 0.00 0.47; 0.47 (0.46 to 0.49) 0.03;0.03 (0.02 to 0.03) 1.64; 1.64 (1.49 to 1.82) 3793; 3797 (3411 to 4182) − 23.29 (− 31.09 to − 15.52)
Nigeria MIS 2015 October to November 326 (4) 7016 0.44 − 0.03 0.47; 0.47 (0.46 to 0.49) 0.03; 0.03 (0.02 to 0.03) 1.62; 1.61 (1.47 to 1.79) 5059; 5063 (4541 to 5549) − 27.84 (− 35.28 to − 20.91)
Rwanda DHS 2010 to 2011 September to March 492 (0) 8963 0.02 0.00 0.02; 0.02 (0.02 to 0.03) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.01; 1.01 (1 to 1.01) 12720; 12730 (12,660 to 12,760) 42.03 (41.25 to 42.36)
Rwanda DHS 2014 to 2015 November to April 492 (0) 7931 0.08 − 0.01 0.08; 0.08 (0.07 to 0.09) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.05; 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) 12,210; 12,220 (11,950 to 12,410) 54.08 (50.67 to 56.47)
Senegal MIS 2008 to 2009 November to February 320 (2) 16,156 0.12 − 0.02 0.14; 0.14 (0.13 to 0.15) 0; 0 (0 to 0.01) 1.12; 1.12 (1.08 to 1.17) 8590; 8599 (8231 to 8895) − 46.78 (− 49.05 to − 44.94)
Senegal DHS 2010 to 2011 October to May 391 (6) 13,334 0.03 − 0.01 0.04; 0.04 (0.04 to 0.05) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.01; 1.01 (1 to 1.01) 8161; 8163 (8120 to 8188) − 38.78 (− 39.1 to − 38.59)
Senegal DHS 2012 to 2013 September to June 200 (0) 7413 0.04 0.00 0.04; 0.04 (0.04 to 0.05) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.01; 1.01 (1 to 1.01) 8169; 8171 (8144 to 8189) 10.23 (9.86 to 10.47)
Tanzania HIV/AIDS and MIS 2011 to 2012 December to May 583 (10) 9319 0.10 0.00 0.10; 0.10 (0.09 to 0.11) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.04; 1.04 (1.03 to 1.05) 10,130; 10,140 (10,010 to 10,230) 8.81 (7.41 to 9.78)
Tanzania DHS 2015 to 2016 August to February 608 (0) 10,901 0.12 0.01 0.11; 0.11 (0.1 to 0.11) 0; 0 (0 to 0) 1.03; 1.03 (1.02 to 1.04) 13,000; 13,000 (12,880 to 13,110) 19.26 (18.15 to 20.26)
Uganda MIS 2009 to 2010 November to February 170 (0) 4202 0.53 0.02 0.51; 0.51 (0.5 to 0.53) 0.02; 0.02 (0.02 to 0.03) 1.57; 1.57 (1.41 to 1.78) 3035; 3038 (2680 to 3366) − 27.7 (− 36.22 to − 19.9)
Uganda MIS 2014 to 2015 December to February 210 (2) 5210 0.33 − 0.02 0.35; 0.35 (0.33 to 0.36) 0.01; 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) 1.33; 1.33 (1.24 to 1.44) 4425; 4424 (4074 to 4743) − 15.09 (− 21.8 to − 8.96)
  1. Data for prevalence of fever and use of insecticide treated bed nets from the same surveys is shown in the Additional file 2: Table S1 and Additional file 3: Table S2, respectively. In total, there were 134,399 children aged 0–4 years in 5839 clusters. The spatial distribution of these clusters in shown in Fig. 1a. Data includes surveys where the three indicators were simultaneously collected at the household level and in countries with more than two surveys. The mean, median and 95% credible intervals of the marginal posterior distribution from the Bayesian analysis are presented for measures of effectiveness: intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), the estimated design effect (hdeff) and the effective sample size (ESS). The absolute bias is the difference in the means between the simple spatial random sample and the Bayesian model estimate. ICC intra-class correlation coefficient, ESS effective sample size; CrI Bayesian credible interval