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Fig. 1 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 1

From: Functional analysis of Plasmodium falciparum subpopulations associated with artemisinin resistance in Cambodia

Fig. 1

Plasmodium falciparum population structure in Cambodia during early period of emergence of artemisinin resistance (2008–2011). a Map of Cambodia and localization of health center (red dots) from where the 167 samples originate. b Eight groups were identified by hierarchical clustering based on 21,257 non-synonymous SNPs to classify 167 samples. Naming of subpopulations was performed according to previous description of the P. falciparum parasite population structure [12], and the overlap with earlier classification was around 90%. KH5 ART-R subpopulation was introduced. The KH1 and KH2 subpopulations [12] were split in two groups. Group structure was confirmed by network based stratification method, based on co-expression data. Ten samples from the admixed subpopulation KHA were differentially classified (overlap between disks). Small overlap was found between KH3 and KH2.2. One sample in each subpopulation was found in the other group. Surface of the disks is proportional to the number of samples (underlined characters). The color code is reminiscent of the major k13 alleles found in the subpopulation: shades of green: WT, blue: R539T, yellow: Y493H, and shades of red: C580Y

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