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Fig. 3 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 3

From: Functional analysis of Plasmodium falciparum subpopulations associated with artemisinin resistance in Cambodia

Fig. 3

Selection of artemisinin resistance associated genes. a Emergence of a common genetic background associated with all five ART-R subpopulations. 5-way Venn-diagram emphasizes great importance of the 265 common set of significant genes in ART-R subpopulations. Genes have at least one significant SNP in the ART-R subpopulations. b Selection and diffusion of the artemisinin-resistance background after crossing with KHA parasites. Red square: genes with significant ALT alleles in the admixed population and in the ART-R subpopulations (57 genes). Alleles for these genes may have been acquired by diffusion after crossing. c The 97 genes (76 with connections) specific to ART-R subpopulation genetic background are connected with ring or schizont stage in P. falciparum. First neighboring genes (in red) in the interaction network based on co-expression data recovered from STRING v10 [32]. The unconnected nodes are not considered in this analysis. The genes are colored according to the maximum expression stage data [34]. The bar plot with each network represents the number of genes expressed in each stage per diffusion. d Conservation of biological pathways during selection and diffusion of significant mutations from original ART-R related genetic background

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