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Table 3 Results of multivariable analysis comparing risk factors for infection with Plasmodium spp. (all species combined), P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae

From: Identification and characterization of areas of high and low risk for asymptomatic malaria infections at sub-village level in Ratanakiri, Cambodia

Variable Level Plasmodium spp. P. falciparum P. vivax P. malariae
OR LCL UCL OR LCL UCL OR LCL UCL OR LCL UCL
Village
 NA = 0 Chamkar Sann Reference      Reference   Reference  
  Phi 1.689 1.011 2.822     1.110 0.547 2.252 2.237 0.966 5.179
  Tun 2.084 1.223 3.552     3.006 1.525 5.927 *1 *1 *1
Age (years)
 NA = 8 0–5 Reference      Reference   Reference  
  6–14 3.243 1.618 6.501     3.679 1.538 8.803 6.946 0.861 56.003
  ≥ 15 2.342 1.210 4.533     3.116 1.251 7.763 7.203 0.944 54.937
Net use
 NA = 5 No     Reference      Reference  
  Yes, bed net     0.248 0.077 0.795     1.133 0.234 5.479
  Yes, hammock net     *2 *2 *2     6.866 1.069 44.108
Plot hut owner
 NA = 6 No        Reference     
  Yes        0.543 0.293 1.007    
Watch television
 NA = 6 Never/seldom     Reference   Reference     
  Often     0.383 0.166 0.883 1.858 0.948 3.642    
  1. Odds ratio and upper and lower 95% confidence limits were calculated with respect to the reference category, which is the first reported subgroup. For the following variables, answer categories were pooled: age (age groups 15–40, and ≥ 40); net use (treated and non-treated net use); plot hut owner (all answers stating that they have a plothut); watch television (never and seldom watching television, and often and very often watching television)
  2. OR = Odds Ratio with respect to the reference category; LCL and UCL = lower and upper 95% confidence limits based on a total sample size of 1540 individuals from three villages; NA in variable column = number of individuals for which information concerning the specific variable was lacking
  3. *1: No P. malariae cases were observed in Tun, so only Phi was compared with the reference category
  4. *2: None of the participants reported to use a hammock net, only bed net use was compared with the reference category