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Table 1 Epidemiological characteristics of malaria in the Southern Africa International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) study sites

From: Malaria knowledge and bed net use in three transmission settings in southern Africa

  Choma District Nchelenge District Mutasa District
Location Southern Province, Zambia Luapula Province, Zambia Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe
Geographical position 16° 23.583′S, 26° 47.433′E 9° 19.115′S, 28° 45.070′E 18° 23.161′S, 32° 59.946′E
Average elevation above sea level (m) 1100 807 912
Seasons Rainy: November–April Cool dry: May–July Hot dry: August–October Rainy: November–April Cool dry: May–August Hot dry: September–October Rainy: November–April Cool dry: May–July Hot dry: August–October
Malaria transmission Seasonal but low (pre-elimination) Intense with little or no seasonal fluctuations Seasonal, unstable and epidemic in nature; decreased over past 3 years following IRS
Primary mosquito vector Anopheles arabiensis Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae Anopheles funestus
Malaria control phase Successful malaria control Ineffective malaria control Resurgent malaria after previous control; again decreasing
Current malaria control interventions Insecticide-treated bed nets and reactive screen and treat. Indoor residual spraying and mass drug administration at a limited scale Insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy Insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy
Estimated population 205,000 148,000 180,000
Main economic activity Cattle herding and subsistence farming Subsistence farming and fishing Subsistence and commercial farming