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Table 1 Reported cases of transfusion- transmitted malaria (TTM) in malaria non-endemic areas

From: A systematic review of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic areas

Countrya Year Donor gender and age Donor origin and last exposure Recipient gender and age Recipient incubation (delayed diagnosis) Recipient outcome Blood component transfused Plasmodium species Diagnosis method recipient (donor) References
Canada
Western region 1936 M Mediterranean area F
13 years
3 weeks (5 weeks) Recovery WB P. malariae LM (LM) [17]
Ontario 1936 M Romania
25 years
F 26 days (2 weeks) Recovery WB P. malariae LM (LM) [18]
Alberta 1977 F
23 years
Africa
2 years
F
60 years
29 days (29 days) Recovery WB P. ovale LM (IFAT) [19]
Quebec 1994 N/A Cameroon
> 3 years
M
63 years
N/A (3 weeks) Recovery RBCs, PLTs, FFP P. falciparum LM (LM) [20]
Ontario 1995 M Mali
4 years
F
24 years
15 days (3 days) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM, PCR (PCR) [20]
Ontario 1997 F
19 years
Ghana
4 years
F
62 years
21 days (5 weeks) Recovery RBCs, FFP P. falciparum LM, PCR [20]
USA
New York 1911 N/A N/A M
54 years
11 days “Pernicious anaemia” WB P. vivax LM [1]
Colorado 1929 M
32 years
Greece
16 years
F
2½ years
19–25 days (on the day) Recovery WB P. malariae LM (LM) [21]
New York 1932 M Italy F
1.5 years
4 weeks (17 days) Recovery WB P. malariae LM [22]
New York 1932 M Italy
12 years
M
9 months
6 weeks Recovery WB P. malariae LM [22]
New York 1933 F Greece F
8 years
< 8 weeks Death due to pneumonia WB P. malariae LM [22]
New York 1936 M Greece
33 years
F
1 year
29 days Recovery WB P. malariae LM [22]
New York 1936 M Colombia
10 years
M
3 years
2 months Recovery WB P. malariae LM [22]
New York 1944 M
40 years
North Africa veteran
1 year
F
32 years
11–4 days (35 days) Recovery WB P. malariae LM (LM) [23]
Rhode Island 1946 M or F Italy or New England F
40 years
2 months (2 days) Recovery WB, FFP P. malariae LM (LM) [24]
Pennsylvania 1946 N/A Army returnee F 3 weeks (9 days) Recovery WB P. vivax LM [25]
California 1968 M
19 years
Vietnam veteran
7 months
M
60 years
4 days (on the day) N/A WB P. falciparum LM (LM) [26]
Connecticut 1968 N/A Mexico
5 years
F
8 months
6 ½ months Recovery WB P. malariae LM [27]
Washington state 1968 M
22 years
Vietnam veteran
1 year
F
54 years
13 days (9 days) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [28]
Oklahoma 1968 M
21 years
Vietnam veteran
5 months
F
25 years
16 days (7 days) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM (LM) [28]
Washington D.C. 1969 M Nigeria
> 2 years
M
56 years
17 days (6 days) Death WB P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [29]
New York 1970 M Ghana
1 year
M
34 years
6 days (2 days) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [30]
Chicago 1972 N/A N/A M
5 months
16 days (6 days) Recovery WB P. vivax LM [31]
New York 1971 N/A N/A M
24 years
Multiple transfusions (7 days) Recovery WB P. vivax LM (IFAT) [32]
New York 1974 N/A N/A F
42 years
9 weeks (on the day) Recovery RBCs, PLTs, FFP P. malariae LM (IFAT) [32]
New York 1974 F
53 years
Greece
22 years
F
78 years
Multiple transfusions (~ 30 days) Recovery WB, RBCs P. malariae LM, IFAT (IFAT) [33]
New York 1974 M
38 years
Cyprus
4 years
F
42 years
35 days (1 month) Recovery RBCs, PLTs, FFP P. malariae LM, IFAT (IFAT) [33]
Tennessee 1974 M
28 years
Nigeria
8 years
F
15 years
3 months (12 days) Recovery WB P. malariae LM (LM, IFAT) [34]
Wisconsin 1977 N/A Africa
recent
F
57 years
Multiple transfusions (28 days) Death due to refractory leukaemia PLTs P. falciparum LM (LM) [35]
New York state 1978 M Ghana
10 months
F
65 years
16 days (1 day) Recovery WB, RBCs, FFP P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [36]
California 1980 M N/A M
6 years
15 days (2 days) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (LM) [37]
California 1982 M Nigeria
7 years
M
premature
6 weeks Death due to pneumonia WB P. ovale LM, IFAT (IFAT) [38]
Boston 1982 N/A N/A M
premature
7 weeks (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. malariae LM (LM) [39]
Boston 1982 N/A N/A M
premature
10 weeks (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. malariae LM (LM) [39]
California 1983 M Guatemala
6 months
M
premature
5 weeks (on the day) Recovery WB P. vivax LM (LM) [40]
California 1983 M South America
6 months
M
infant
14 days (on the day) Recovery WB P. vivax LM (IFAT) [40]
Texas 1992 M
19 years
Nigeria
7 months
F
71 years
7 days (on the day) N/A RBCs, PLTs P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [41]
Texas 1992 M
19 years
Nigeria
7 months
M
65 years
N/A N/A RBCs P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [41]
California 1992 M
55 years
China
44 years
M
44 years
7 months (3 months) Recovery RBCs P. malariae LM (IFAT) [41]
Texas 1994 M Nigeria recent F
59 years
20 days (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [42]
 Texas 1994 M Ghana recent M
46 years
16 days (7 days) Recovery RBCs, FFP P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [42]
Pennsylvania 1995 M Nigeria
3 years
F
72 years
Multiple transfusions Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [43]
Missouri 1996 M West Africa
1 year
M
70 years
15 days (on the day) Death RBCs P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT, PCR) [44]
Missouri 1997 M West Africa
2 years
M
85 years
21 days (on the day) Death RBCs P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT, PCR) [44]
Pennsylvania 1998 M West Africa
2 years
M
49 years
35 days (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (IFAT, PCR) [44]
Texas 2003 M Ghana
2 years
69 years 17 days (3 days) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (LM, PCR, IFAT) [45]
Texas 2007 M Nigeria
6 years
F
25 years
Multiple transfusions Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [46]
Washington D.C. 2007 M West Africa F 15 days (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM, PCR (LM) [47]
Washington D.C. 2007 M
27 years
Nigeria
3 years
M
27 years
13–28 days (11 days) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (IFAT, PCR) [47]
New Jersey 2007 F
30 years
Uganda
> 1 year
M
78 years
1 year Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM (IFAT, PCR) [47]
N/A 2007 M
21 years
Benin
4 years
F
55 years
1 month Recovery RBCs, PLTs, FFP P. falciparum LM, IFAT, PCR (IFAT, EIA) [48]
Georgia 2015 M
20 years
Liberia
15 years
M
76 years
6 months (2 days) Recovery RBCs, FFP P. malariae LM, PCR (LM, PCR, ELISA) [49]
Colombia
Cali 2011 N/A Rural area
9 months
F
Premature
Multiple transfusions (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. vivax LM (PCR) [50]
Brasil
 Sao Paulo 2008 M Atlantic forest
1 year
N/A 75 days (on the day) Recovery RBCs, PLTs, FFP P. malariae LM (LM, PCR, IFAT) [51]
Spain
Valencia 1987 N/A Congo F
32years
7 days (on the day) N/A WB P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [52]
Madrid 1997 N/A Central Africa F
63 years
3 weeks (4 weeks) N/A WB P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [53]
Cordoba 2002 N/A N/A F
26 years
Multiple transfusions (128 days) Recovery WB, RBCs P. falciparum LM
IFAT
[54]
UK
Midlands 1935 M India
2 years
M
26 years
19 days (5 days) Recovery WB P. vivax LM (LM) [55]
London 1938 M Ceylon
12 years
F
3 months
10 weeks (on the day) Death WB P. malariae LM (LM) [56]
Durham 1946 M Yemen
7 years
F
18 years
7–8 weeks (10 days) Recovery WB P. malariae LM (LM) [57]
N/A 1959 M
19 years
Nigeria
1 year
F
41 years
16 days (6 days) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM (LM) [58]
Oxford 1966 M Far East
20 years
M
33 years
10 weeks (1 day) Recovery WB, FFP P. malariae LM (LM) [59]
Buckingmanshire 1967 M Army returnee M
51 years
N/A Recovery FFP P. malariae LM (LM) [60]
Buckingmanshire 1968 M Africa
18 months
M
49 years
11 days (12 days) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [60]
London 1986 M Africa F
72 years
13 days (12 days) N/A PLTs P. falciparum LM (LM, IFAT) [61]
London 1986 M Ghana F
81 years
14 days N/A WB P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [61]
N/A 1994 F Ghana
1 year
M 15 days (on the day) N/A WB P. falciparum LM (EIA, IFAT) [5]
N/A 1997 F
19 years
Ghana
3 years
M
62 years
4 days Death WB P. falciparum (EIA, IFAT) [5]
N/A 2003 F
38 years
Ghana
7 years
M
51 years
N/A Death WB P. falciparum LM (EIA, IFAT) [5]
Netherlands
Leiden 2011 M
36 years
Africa
Costa Rica
> 4 years
F
59 years
2 months (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. malariae LM, PCR (LM, IFAT, PCR) [62]
Germany
Göttingen 1998 N/A N/A M
18 months
14 days (9 days) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM [63]
France
Poitiers 1969 M Portugal
5 months
F 15 days
(1 month)
Recovery WB P. malariae LM (IFAT) [64]
Paris 1957 F Tunisia
27 years
F
32 years
48 days (4 days) Recovery WB P. vivax LM [65]
Paris 1973 M Senegal
13 years
M
30 years
14 days (9 days) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM (IFAT) [65]
Paris 1975 N/A N/A F
24 years
15 days (18 days) Recovery WB Plasmodium LM (IFAT) [66]
Tours 1977 N/A N/A F
47 years
15 days (on the day) Recovery WB P. vivax LM [67]
Rouen 1976 N/A Senegal N/A 12 days (10 days) Death N/A P. falciparum (IFAT) [68]
Rouen 1976 N/A Ivory Coast N/A 13 days (6 days) Death N/A P. falciparum (IFAT) [68]
Rouen 1978 N/A N/A N/A 60 days (2 days) Recovery N/A P. malariae (IFAT) [68]
Nancy 1979 M Zaire
1 month
F
29 years
15 days (43 days) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum
P. malariae
LM (IFAT) [69]
Crèteil 1980 M Central Africa M
infant
2 months (3 days) Recovery RBCs, FFP P. malariae LM [70]
Aulnay-sous-Bois 1986 N/A N/A F
64 years
16 days (on the day) Recovery WB P. ovale LM [71]
Libourne 1990 M Comores
< 6 months
F
39 years
1 month (on the day) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM [72]
Le Chesnay 2002 F
19 years
Africa
4 years
M
81 years
13 days (4 days) Death RBCs P. falciparum LM, IFAT, PCR (IFAT, PCR) [73]
Tourcoing 2013 N/A Endemic area
3 years
F
75 years
14 days (8 days) Death RBCs P. falciparum LM (IFAT, PCR) [74]
Switzerland
Zurich 1999 M
30 years
Cameroon
6 years
M
70 years
14 days (22 days) Death RBCs, FFP P. falciparum LM (IFAT, PCR) [75]
Austria
Wien 1929 M Endemic area
10 years
N/A 14 days Recovery WB P. vivax LM [76]
Italy
Liguria 1963 N/A N/A M
Premature
28–40 days Recovery WB P. malariae LM [77]
Liguria 1963 N/A N/A F
8 years
1–13 days Recovery WB P. vivax LM [78]
Liguria 1964 N/A N/A F
6 years
Multiple transfusions (4 months) Recovery WB P. vivax LM [78]
Sicily 2005 M Philippine F
35 years
Multiple transfusions (4 months) Recovery WB P. malariae LM [79]
Veneto 2008 N/A N/A F
29 years
Morocco
Multiple transfusions (2 weeks) Recovery RBCs P. vivax LM [80]
Algeria
Algiers 1918 M Greece
1 month
F 15 days (few days) Recovery WB P. praecox b LM (LM) [13]
Lebanon
Beirut 2007 N/A N/A M
28 years
1 ½ months (2 weeks) Recovery RBCs P. falciparum LM [81]
Beirut 2010 N/A N/A F
46 years
1 month (2 days) Recovery RBCs P. ovale LM [82]
India
Shimla 2006 N/A N/A F
47 years
12 days (on the day) Recovery WB P. falciparum LM [83]
Korea
 Taegu, South Corea 2000 M
21 years
Endemic area M
1 year
15 days (5 days) Recovery RBCs, FFP P. vivax LM (LM, PCR) [84]
Thailand
Bangkok 2011 M
teenager
Endemic area
3 weeks
F
62 years
15 days (on the day) Recovery RBCs P. knowlesi LM, PCR [85]
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur 2012 M
26 years
Myanmar
9 months
M
12 years
1 week (on the day) N/A WB P. vivax LM, PCR (PCR) [86]
Sabah 2015 M
51 years
Endemic area F
23 years
16 days (on the day) Recovery WB P. knowlesi LM, PCR (LM, PCR) [87]
  1. N/A data not available, WB whole blood, RBCs red blood cells, PLTs platelets, FFP fresh frozen plasma, LM light microscopy, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IFAT indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, PCR polymerase chain reaction
  2. aOnly non-endemic areas of the country if malaria endemic were included
  3. bPossible misidentification of P. falciparum