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Table 2 Summary of point estimates characterizing the association of malaria risk with environmental factors

From: The associations between malaria, interventions, and the environment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Country Effect measure Rainfall indicator Rainfall (95% CI) Vegetation indicator Vegetation index Temperature indicator Temperature Humidity
Adigun [39] Nigeria OR Decadal rainfall (mm) 0.72 (0.57, 0. 91) NDVI 1.56 (1.21, 1.99)    
Bennett [40] Zambia OR 20 days rainfall (mm) 2.04 (1.38, 3.00) EVI 1.98 (1.48, 2.65)    
Chirombo [41] Malawi OR Mean rainfall (mm/day) NR    3 months min temp (°C) NR  
Dhimal [46] Nepal RR      Monthly min temp (°C) 1.27 (1.12, 1.45) 0.91 (0.83, 1.00)
Diboulo [49]a (National level) Burkina Fasso OR      8 days NLST (°C) 0.81 (0.72, 0.90)  
Diboulo [49]a (District level) Burkina Fasso OR      8 days NLST (°C) 0.82 (0.72, 0.93)  
Giardina [42] Senegal OR    NDVI 0.91 (0.61, 1.83) Weekly NLST (°C) 0.83 (0.53, 1.26)  
Gosoniu [43]b Tanzania OR Annual average (15–20 mm) 0.97 (0.48, 1.90) NDVI (0.4–0.6) 1.47 (0.88, 2.45) Annual average night temp (16–20 °C) 1.47 (0.81, 2.73)  
Gosoniu [43]b Tazania OR Annual average (20 mm) 1.43 (0.63, 3.14) NDVI (0.6) 1.40 (0.67, 2.98) Annual average night temp (20 °C) 1.31 (0.61, 2.81)  
Graves [47]c (Gash Barka Zoba) Eritrea NS Monthly precipitation (mm/day) 1.00 NDVI 4.73    
Graves [47]c (Anseba Zoba) Eritrea NS Monthly precipitation (mm/day) 1.00 NDVI 14 × 103    
Lowe [44] Malawi OR Monthly precipitation (mm/day) NR    Temp estimates (°C) NR  
Riedel [45] Zambia OR Daily rainfall estimate (mm) 1.21 (0.85, 1.68) NDVI 1.28 (0.67, 2.73) 8 days NLST (K) 1.21 (0.77, 1.88)  
Thomson [48] Gambia NS    NDVI 0.67    
  1. NR not reported, NS not specified, OR odd ratio, RR risk ratio
  2. aDiboulo et al. studied environmental drivers at national and district level
  3. bGosoniu et al. studied different measures of rainfall, vegetation index and temperature indicators
  4. cGraves et al. studied environmental drivers in two different areas (Gash Barka Zoba and Anseba Zoba)