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Table 2 Association between parasitaemia and non-febrile clinical illness

From: Clinical consequences of submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia in Uganda

  No parasitaemia Submicroscopic parasitaemia Microscopic parasitaemia
Association between parasitaemia and non-febrile clinical illnessa
 Age 0.5–< 2
  Risk 74/293 (25.3%) 27/120 (22.5%) 31/71 (43.7%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 0.90 (0.60–1.36) 1.73 (1.28–2.35)
  p value 0.60 < 0.01
 Age 2–< 5
  Risk 181/1158 (15.6%) 96/508 (18.9%) 87/393 (22.1%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.16 (0.92–1.46) 1.39 (1.09–1.77)
  p value 0.22 0.01
 Age 5–10
  Risk 185/2153 (8.6%) 152/1267 (12.0%) 191/1379 (13.9%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.44 (1.17–1.78) 1.71 (1.37–2.13)
  p value < 0.01 < 0.01
 Age 0.5–10
  Risk 440/3604 (12.2%) 275/1895 (14.5%) 309/1843 (16.8%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.26 (1.09–1.47) 1.52 (1.30–1.78)
  p value < 0.01 < 0.01
 Age ≥ 18
  Risk 119/948 (12.6%) 94/679 (13.8%) 12/106 (11.3%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.10 (0.82–1.48) 0.96 (0.52–1.76)
  p value 0.52 0.89
  1. aComposite variable based on self-report of abdominal pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, headache, joint pain, muscle ache, seizure, or jaundice at routine visit
  2. bAdjusted for repeated measures in the same study participant
  3. cExcludes participants who were diagnosed with malaria in the past 14 days or developed malaria in the next 7 days
  No parasitaemia Submicroscopic parasitaemia
Association between parasitaemia and non-febrile clinical illness, excluding those with recent malariac
 Age 0.5–< 2
  Risk 72/284 (25.4%) 22/81 (27.2%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.08 (0.70–1.66)
  p value 0.74
 Age 2–< 5
  Risk 172/1100 (15.6%) 72/378 (19.1%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.18 (0.90–1.53)
  p value 0.23
 Age 5–10
  Risk 175/2034 (8.6%) 144/1161 (12.4%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.45 (1.16–1.80)
  p value < 0.01
 Age 0.5–10
  Risk 419/3418 (12.3%) 238/1620 (14.7%)
  RRb (95% CI) Reference group 1.25 (1.07–1.46)
  p value < 0.01
 Age ≥ 18
  Risk 117/930 (12.6%) 93/672 (13.8%)
  RRc (95% CI) Reference group 1.10 (0.82–1.48)
  p value 0.53
  1. aComposite variable based on self-report of abdominal pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, headache, joint pain, muscle ache, seizure, or jaundice at routine visit
  2. bAdjusted for repeated measures in the same study participant
  3. cExcludes participants who were diagnosed with malaria in the past 14 days or developed malaria in the next 7 days