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Table 3 Association between pfk13 and pfmdr1 polymorphisms and late treatment failures observed during therapeutic efficacy studies in Angola, 2015, stratified by treatment arm

From: Prevalence of molecular markers of artemisinin and lumefantrine resistance among patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in three provinces in Angola, 2015

Genetic markers Artemether–lumefantrine (28 late treatment failures) Dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (15 late treatment failures) Artesunate–amodiaquine (7 late treatment failures)
RR P value†† P value††† RR P value†† P value††† RR P value†† P value†††
pfk13
 Wild type Ref Ref Ref Ref
 A578S 0 1 0 1
pfmdr1 copy number
 1
pfmdr1 haplotypes
 NYD Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 YYD 0.3 0.4 0.04 0 1 0.7 0 1 0.6
 NFD 1.0 1 0.7 1.75 1 1 0 1 1
 YFD 2.0 0.4 0.6 0 1 0.5
 YYY 0 1 0.6 0 1 1 0.1
 NYY 0 1 1
 YFY 0 1 1
pfmdr1 single nucleotide polymorphisms
 N86 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 86Y 0.3 0.5 0.03 0 1 0.5 0 1 0.1
 Y184 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 184F 1.3 0.7 0.3 0 1 0.8 0 1 1
 D1246 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 1246Y 0 1 0.6 0 1 1 0.07
  1. Relative risk (RR) of treatment failure (recrudescence)
  2. ††Statistical significance of difference in risk of treatment failure (recrudescence)
  3. †††Statistical significance of difference in risk of treatment failure (recrudescence or reinfection)