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Table 2 Question items used to measure IPTp/ANC ideation among female caregivers

From: Malaria-related ideational factors and other correlates associated with intermittent preventive treatment among pregnant women in Madagascar

Ideational index and corresponding factors Question/Likert-scale statement
General malaria ideation index
 Interpersonal communication about risk of malaria In the past year, have you discussed malaria in pregnancy with your spouse or friends? Yes
 Malaria knowledge What causes malaria? Mosquito bites*
What are some things that can happen to you when you have malaria? Fever
What are the things that people can do to stop them from getting malaria? Respondent mentioned at least one of prevention methods  (e.g. sleep under a mosquito net)
 Perceived severity of malaria I don’t worry about malaria because it can be easily treated*
Every case of malaria can potentially lead to death*
When my child has a fever, I almost always worry that it might be malaria*
When someone I know gets malaria, I usually expect them to completely recover in a few days*
When my child has a fever, I usually wait a couple of days before going to a health provider*
My children are so healthy that they would be able to recover from a case of malaria*
Only weak children can die from malaria*
 Perceived susceptibility of malaria During the rainy season, I worry almost every day that someone in my family will get malaria*
People in this community only get malaria during rainy season*
People only get malaria when there are lots of mosquitoes*
 Self-efficacy to prevent malaria I could probably easily protect myself from getting malaria*
I could probably easily protect my children from getting malaria*
IPTp/ANC ideation index
 Descriptive norm Generally, how many women in your community receive at least four check-ups from a health provider when they are pregnant? All women, most women, at least half of the women
 Interpersonal communication In the past year, have you discussed malaria in pregnancy with your spouse or friends? Yes
 IPTp knowledge What is the name of the medicine that is given to pregnant women to keep them from getting malaria? SP/Fansidar/Paludar/Paludoxine
When should a pregnant woman start to take this medicine to keep from getting malaria? When the baby first moves or at the start of the 4th month or second trimester
How many times during her pregnancy should a woman receive this medicine? Two or more
 Attitudes toward IPTp/ANC When a woman thinks she is pregnant, she should see a health provider as soon as possible*
Pregnant women often feel sick when they take medicine on an empty stomach*
Even if a woman thinks she may be pregnant, she should wait a few months to know for certain before she sees a health provider*
Health care providers will only give a pregnant woman medicine if they know for certain that it is not harmful to her or to her baby*
 Response efficacy Pregnant women are still at risk for malaria even if they take the medicine that is meant to keep them from getting malaria*
 Participation in health care decisions In your household, who usually makes decisions about health care for yourself—you, your spouse, you and your spouse, or someone else? Respondent, joint decision with spouse*
  1. The question responses that were considered in creating each index appear in italics
  2. Statements without response options were responded to with a four-point Likert scale
  3. ANC antenatal care, IPTp intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy, SP sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine
  4. Indicators marked with an asterisk (*) are from 2014 RBM Malaria Behavior Change Communication Indicator Reference Guide [31]