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Table 6 Use of and expenditure on malaria medication in surveyed population who reported fever in prior 2 weeks in Siaya County, Kenya, 2012

From: Socioeconomic health inequality in malaria indicators in rural western Kenya: evidence from a household malaria survey on burden and care-seeking behaviour

Utilization of medication (N = 1180) All Poorest households Less-poor households  
n (%) n (%) n (%) p-valuec
Artemether-lumefantrine 396 (33.6) 185 (30.9) 211 (36.2) 0.434
Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine 8 (0.7) 6 (1.0) 2 (0.3) 0.119
Amodiaquine 11 (0.9) 7 (1.2) 4 (0.7) 0.284
Quinine 14 (1.2) 6 (1.0) 8 (1.4) 0.721
Chloroquine 5 (0.4) 3 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 0.557
Overall (any malaria medicine) 429 (36.4) 205 (34.3) 224 (38.4) 0.133
Non-recommended medicinea 38 (4.2) 22 (4.9) 16 (3.5) 0.332
  Mean (SD) in USD Mean (SD) in USD Mean (SD) in USD  
Expenditure on all malaria medications per person 0.38 (0.50) 0.35 (0.52) 0. 40 (0.55) 0.076
  Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
in USD
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
in USD
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
in USD
p-valued
Expenditure on all medications per person among only those who paid for drugs (n = 424)b 1.04 (0.32)
1.01 (1.01–1.01)
1.02 (0.32)
1.01 (1.01–1.01)
1.05 (0.33)
1.01 (1.01–1.01)
0.345
0.926
Expenditure on non-recommended malaria medicines per person (n = 38) 1.14 (0.86)
0.62 (0.42–2.24)
1.36 (0.91)
1.43 (0.45–2.24)
0.98 (0.80)
0.62 (0.42–2.24)
0.039
0.018
  1. USD United States dollars, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range
  2. aNon-recommended medicine for malaria treatment included sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, quinine used by non-pregnant women and chloroquine
  3. bMean prices of adult formulation were artemether-lumefantrine = USD 1.01; sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine = USD 0.62; amodiaquine = USD 0.42; quinine = USD 2.24; chloroquine = USD 0.40
  4. cFisher’s exact test
  5. dWilcoxon rank sum test to compare medians and t-test to compare means; excludes children who received medicine for free from public health facilities