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Table 3 Resistant gene polymorphisms of the parasite isolates collected before 2009 and from 2009 to 2016

From: Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum after an artemisinin resistance containment project

  Total Before 2009 2009–2016 p value
pfcrt 76T,  % (n) 98.1 (102/104) 96.0 (48/50) 100 (54/54) 0.229
pfmdr1
 Copy number (n = 102) 1.1 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.5 0.116
 86Y, % (n) 6.8 (7/103) 14.0 (7/50) 0 (0/53) 0.005
 184F, % (n) 89.3 (92/103) 84.0 (42/50) 94.3 (50/53) 0.083
 1034C, % (n) 11.7 (12/103) 20.0 (10/50) 3.8 (2/53) 0.011
 1042D, % (n) 16.5 (17/103) 32.0 (16/50) 1.9 (1/53) < 0.001
 1246Y, % (n) 0 (0/103) 0 (0/50) 0 (0/53)
cytb 268S, % (n) (0/50) (0/50)
K13 52.5 (53/101) 18.4 (9/49) 84.6 (44/52) < 0.001
 G436S, % (n) 1.0 (1/101) 0 (0/49) 1.9 (1/52) 0.515
 F483L, % (n) 2.0 (2/101) 2.0 (1/49) 1.9 (1/52) 0.737
 Y493H, % (n) 1.0 (1/101) 0 (0/49) 1.9 (1/52) 0.515
 G538 V, % (n) 1.0 (1/101) 0 (0/49) 1.9 (1/52) 0.515
 R539T, % (n) 8.9 (9/101) 2.0 (1/49) 15.4 (8/52) 0.019
 V568G, % (n) 1.0 (1/101) 2.0 (1/49) 0 (0/52) 0.485
 C580Y, % (n) 38.6 (39/101) 12.2 (6/49) 63.5 (33/52) < 0.001
  1. Significant difference of mean pfmdr copy number between parasites collected before 2009 and from 2009 to 2016 determined by Independent t test
  2. Significant differences of resistant alleles between parasites collected before 2009 and from 2009 to 2016 determined using Fisher’s Exact test