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Table 4 Comparison of categorical demographic and EEG variables by outcome (mortality) (OR, 95% CI)

From: Admission EEG findings in diverse paediatric cerebral malaria populations predict outcomes

Country Clinical or EEG variable Children with variable who were alive (N, %) Children with variable who died (N, %) Odds ratioa 95% confidence interval p value
Uganda Total N (122) 101 21    
Retinopathy positive 71 (70.3) 16 (73.2) 1.63 0.5, 5.3 0.41
HIV reactivity 3 (3.0) 0 (0.0)    
Variability 62 (61.4) 11 (52.4) 0.64 0.25, 1.65 0.35
Asymmetry 13 (12.9) 2 (9.5) 0.71 0.15, 3.42 0.67
Electrographic seizures (present) 8 (7.9) 1 (4.8) 0.58 0.07, 4.9 0.62
Spindles (present) 60 (59.4) 11 (52.4) 0.64 0.25, 1.66 0.36
Vertex sharp waves 47 (46.5) 9 (42.9) 0.79 0.31, 2.07 0.64
Focal slowing 3 (2.9) 3 (14.3) 5.27 0.98, 28.3 0.052
Reactivity (normal + paradoxical) 40 (39.6) 4 (19.1) 0.306 0.09, 0.98 0.046
Normal reactivity (increase in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 37 (36.6) 3 (14.3) 1.02 0.09, 10.46 0.55
Paradoxical reactivity (decrease in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 3 (2.97) 1 (4.76) 0.25 0.07, 0.91 0.09
Malawi Total N (159) 137 22    
Retinopathy positive 137 (100) 22 (100)    
HIV reactivity 12 (9.7) 1 (5.0) 0.49 0.06, 4.0 0.5065
Variability 71 (51.8) 7 (31.8) 0.43 0.17, 1.13 0.087
Asymmetry 40 (29.2) 9 (40.9) 1.68 0.66, 4.23 0.27
Electrographic seizures present 16 (11.7) 6 (27.3) 2.84 0.97, 8.3 0.06
Spindles present 58 (42.3) 7 (31.8) 0.64 0.24, 1.66 0.35
Vertex sharp waves 37 (27.0) 2 (9.1) 0.27 0.06, 1.21 0.09
Focal slowing (focal versus gen) 14 (10.2) 5 (22.7) 2.58 0.83, 8.08 0.10
Reactivity (normal + paradoxical) 62 (45.3) 6 (27.3) 0.45 0.17, 1.2 0.12
Normal reactivity (increase in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 37 (27.0) 4 (18.2) 0.51 0.16, 1.63 0.77
Paradoxical reactivity (decrease in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 25 (18.2) 2 (9.1) 0.37 0.08, 1.75 0.42
Uganda + Malawi Total N (281) 238 43    
Retinopathy positive 208 (87.4) 38 (88.4) 1.32 0.44,3.98 0.62
HIV reactivity 15 (6.7) 1 (3.5) 0.49 0.06, 3.91 0.5072
Variability 133 (55.9) 18 (41.9) 0.552 0.29,1.07 0.077
Asymmetry 53 (22.3) 11 (25.6) 1.20 0.57,2.54 0.634
Electrographic seizures present 24 (10.1) 7 (16.3) 1.73 0.69,4.32 0.24
Spindles present 118 (49.6) 18 (41.9) 0.696 0.36,1.34 0.28
Vertex sharp waves 84 (35.3) 11 (25.6) 0.614 0.29,1.28 0.19
Focal slowing 17 (7.1) 8 (18.6) 2.93 1.76,7.3 0.02
Reactivity (normal + paradoxical) 102 (42.9) 10 (23.3) 0.374 0.18,0.79 0.010
Reactivity (increase in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 40 (16.8) 5 (11.6) 0.477 0.17,1.31 0.79
Paradoxical reactivity (decrease in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 62 (26.1) 5 (11.6) 0.308 0.11,0.83 0.13
  1. aOdds of death of children having the EEG feature divided by the odds of death of children without the EEG feature