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Table 1 Distribution of participants according to number of ANC visits

From: Association between timing and number of antenatal care visits on uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy among Malawian women

Variable Total (n = 6549) Number of ANC visit categories p valueb
Inadequatea (n = 3402) Adequatea (n = 3147)
n n (%) n (%)
Age (years)     0.035*
 15–24 3043 1642 (48.3) 1401 (44.5)  
 25–34 2517 1246 (36.6) 1271 (40.4)  
 ≥ 35 989 514 (15.1) 475 (15.1)  
Marital status     0.012*
 Married 5470 2799 (82.3) 2671 (84.9)  
 Never married 346 210 (6.2) 136 (4.3)  
 Separated/divorced/widowed 733 393 (11.6) 340 (10.8)  
Education     < 0.001***
 No formal education 785 444 (13.0) 341 (10.8)  
 Primary 4382 2350 (69.1) 2032 (64.6)  
Secondary and above 1382 608 (17.9) 774 (24.6)  
Occupation     0.049*
 Unemployed 2086 1130 (33.2) 956 (30.4)  
 Employed 4463 2272 (66.8) 2191 (69.6)  
Parity     0.132
 Primigravida 1818 899 (26.4) 919 (29.2)  
 Secundigravida 1352 722 (21.2) 630 (20.0)  
 Multigravida 3379 1781 (52.4) 1598 (50.8)  
Wealth index     < 0.001***
 Poor 3147 1724 (50.7) 1423 (45.2)  
 Middle 1261 690 (20.3) 571 (18.2)  
 Rich 2141 988 (29.0) 1153 (36.6)  
Residence     < 0.001***
 Urban 897 381 (11.2) 516 (16.4)  
 Rural 5652 3021 (88.8) 2631 (83.6)  
Region     0.841
 Northern 748 389 (11.4) 359 (11.4)  
 Central 2756 1418 (41.7) 1338 (42.5)  
 Southern 3045 1595 (46.9) 1450 (46.1)  
IPTp uptake     < 0.001***
 < 3 4568 2551 (75.0) 2017 (64.1)  
 ≥ 3 1981 850 (25.0) 1131 (35.9)  
Timing of first ANC visit (n = 6413)     < 0.001***
 First trimester 1503 325 (9.9) 1178 (37.5)  
 Second trimester 4427 2492 (76.2) 1935 (61.6)  
 Third trimester 483 452 (13.8) 31 (1.0)  
  1. ANC antenatal care, IPTp intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy
  2. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  3. aThe number of ANC visits was categorized into two levels: adequate ANC visits (4 or more) and inadequate ANC visits (fewer than 4)
  4. bp value of Pearson’s Chi squared test