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Table 4 Multivariable risk factors for PCR-positivity (all species), malaria parasite and risk-factor survey, Northern Lao PDR

From: Prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic malaria and genotyping of glucose 6-phosphate (G6PD) deficiencies in a vivax-predominant setting, Lao PDR: implications for sub-national elimination goals

Risk factor   Unadjusted OR [95% CI] p-value aOR [95% CI] p-value
District Paktha Reference Reference
Muang Et 0.96 0.31–2.94 0.942 1.77 0.74–4.24 0.197
Nambak 0.28 0.035–2.28 0.232 0.28 0.048–1.64 0.157
Khua 2.91 0.83–10.18 0.94 1.89 1.07–3.34 0.029
Wealth quantile Highest Reference Reference
Middle high 1.95 0.57–6.60 0.281 2.13 0.87–5.24 0.097
Middle low 2.03 0.63–6.46 0.229 1.63 0.59–4.50 0.345
Lowest 6.78 1.8424.93 0.004 3.57 1.24–10.27 0.019
Does HH own any type of net (bed net or hammock) to sleep under? Yes Reference Reference  
No 31.90 4.35–234.12 0.001 10.91 5.42–21.94 < 0.001
Have you ever heard of malaria? Yes Reference Reference
No 1.44 0.61–3.39 0.396 0.71 0.38–1.34 0.286
Don’t know 5.05 1.77–3.39 0.003 3.96 1.05–14.91 0.042
Source of malaria knowledge Not brochure or poster Reference Reference
Brochure or poster 5.28 0.637–44.46 0.124 10.99 2.02–59.77 0.006
Does anyone in HH go to forest or forest-fringe sites overnight? No Reference Reference
Yes 3.35 1.10–10.21 0.033 1.77 0.78–4.01 0.169
Any cases in village outside household? No Reference Reference
Yes 2.07 0.13–5.30 0.128 3.00 0.993–9.08 0.051
Any other cases in household? No Reference Reference
Yes 25.77 7.52–88.31 < 0.001 12.83 4.40–37.38 < 0.001
Sex Male Reference Reference  
Female 1.27 0.80–2.00 0.305 1.18 0.69–2.02 0.549
Age in years Continuous 0.986 0.97–1.01 0.146 0.995 0.98–1.01 0.563
  1. Risk factors with p < 0.05 are shown in italicface
  2. HH household