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Table 3 Bivariate negative binomial models of association between species-specific mosquito abundances and various predictors

From: Household-level and surrounding peri-domestic environmental characteristics associated with malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus along an urban–rural continuum in Blantyre, Malawi

  An. arabiensis An. funestus
95% CI P value 95% CI P value
Demographics
 Number of rooms 0.8 (0.7, 0.9) < 0.01 0.7 (0.6, 0.8) 0.0001
 Number of children under age 5 1.9 (1.3, 2.7) < 0.001 1.9 (1.3, 2.8) < 0.001
 Number slept in the house 1.0 (0.8, 1.1) 0.75 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.42
 Age of household head (years) 0.99 (0.98, 1.0) 0.09 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) < 0.01
 Male head of household 1.1 (0.7, 1.7) 0.78 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) 0.23
 Highest educational attainment of head of household   < 0.001   0.0001
 No formal education Ref   Ref  
 Some primary education 1.3 (0.5, 3.2)   2.8 (1.2, 6.9)  
 Some secondary education 0.5 (0.2, 1.3)   1.6 (0.6, 4.0)  
 Some college 0.4 (0.1, 1.2)   0.2 (0.1, 0.6)  
Malaria prevention practices
 Total number of nets per household 0.8 (0.6, 0.9) 0.01 0.7 (0.6, 0.9) < 0.001
 Respondent used a net night prior to study 2.5 (1.5, 3.9) 0.0001 2.2 (1.4, 3.4) < 0.001
 Other family members used a net night prior to study 3.2 (2.0, 4.9) 0.0001 2.5 (1.6, 3.9) 0.0001
 Ave. number of nets per person 0.2 (0.1, 0.5) 0.0001 0.3 (0.2, 0.6) < 0.001
Household environmental characteristics (50 m buffer)
 Within Blantyre city limits 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 0.0001 0.02 (0.01, 0.03) 0.0001
 Increasing distance from city centre (2.5 km intervals) 1.5 (1.4, 1.7) 0.0001 1.7 (1.5, 1.9) 0.0001
Section/region
 Lunzu (1) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Chileka (2) 1.1 (0.5, 2.6) 0.75 1.8 (0.9, 3.6) 0.08
 Chilomoni (3) 1.0 (0.4, 2.4) 0.97 1.1 (0.5, 2.1) 0.87
 Mpemba (4) 0.1 (0, 0.3) 0.0001 0.1 (0, 0.1) 0.0001
 Chigumula (5) 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.0001 0.1 (0, 0.1) 0.0001
 Mikolongwe (6) 0.9 (0.4, 2.0) 0.75 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 0.0001
 Kachere (7) 0.3 (0.1, 0.7) < 0.01 0 (0, 0.1) 0.0001
 Machinjiri (8) 0.5 (0.2, 1.2) 0.11 0.1 (0, 0.2) 0.0001
 Rainy (vs. dry) season 46.1 (29.6, 71.6) 0.0001 15.3 (10.5, 22.4) 0.0001
 Elevation (m) 0.996 (0.995, 0.997) 0.0001 0.992 (0.991, 0.993) 0.0001
 Number nearby households 0.9 (0.9, 1.0) 0.0001 0.9 (0.8, 0.9) 0.0001
 Amount of land used for growing crops (%) 2.3 (1.2, 4.2) < 0.01 1.8 (1.0, 3.1) 0.04
 NDVI (rainy season) 0.4 (0, 6.5) 0.50 2.6 (0.2, 30.4) 0.44
NDVI category (rainy season)
 ≤ 0.1 (barren: rock/sand/urban) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 > 0.1 and ≤ 0.4 (shrub/grassland) 2.6 (0.1, 94.7) 0.60 0.6 (0, 17.6) 0.80
 > 0.4 and ≤ 1 (temperate/tropical rainforest) 1.8 (0, 69.9) 0.74 0.8 (0, 22.3) 0.89
 NDVI (dry season) 96.5 (0, 212,362.4) 0.25 0.1 (0, 304.7) 0.53
NDVI category (dry season)
 ≤ 0.1 (barren: rock/sand/urban) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 > 0.1 and ≤ 0.4 (shrub/grassland) 19.4 (5.2, 72.1) < .0001 111.6 (22, 566.7) < .0001
 > 0.4 and ≤ 1 (temperate/tropical rainforest) NA NA NA NA
 Agriculture 5.8 (3.8, 8.8) 0.0001 4.0 (2.6, 6.1) 0.0001
 Fruit trees 0.9 (0.6, 1.6) 0.82 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.27
 Grazing 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 0.06 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) 0.02
 Forest 0.4 (0.2, 1.1) 0.08 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.0001
 Ownership of goats 3.1 (1.7, 5.8) < 0.001 3.9 (2.1, 7.0) 0.0001
 Ownership of chickens 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 0.25 1.7 (1.1, 2.6) 0.03
Housing construction
 Closed (vs. fully/partially open) windows 0.9 (0.4, 1.8) 0.72 0.5 (0.2, 0.9) 0.03
 Closed (vs. fully/partially open) eaves 2.0 (1.0, 4.3) 0.06 2.2 (1.1, 4.5) 0.03
Roof type
 Iron sheets Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Thatched 3.0 (1.8, 4.9) 0.0001 4.1 (2.5, 6.6) 0.0001
 Tile 0.5 (0, 37.0) 0.74 0.6 (0, 31.2) 0.80
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)