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Table 5 Assessment of risk factors for asymptomatic malaria infections in the rainy and dry seasons

From: Risk factors for asymptomatic malaria infections from seasonal cross-sectional surveys along the China–Myanmar border

Predictive factors Category Rainy season Dry season Risk ratio (95% CI)2
PCR+ (%) AOR (95% CI)1 PCR+ (%) AOR (95% CI)1 Rainy/dry seasons
Overall   30.1   19.9   1.74 (1.38−2.19)***
Individual-level
 Gender Male 36.8 1.61 (1.05−2.46)* 26.2 1.36 (0.96−1.92) 1.64 (1.12−2.41)*
Female 26.3 1 17.6 1 1.67 (1.24−2.24)**
 Age groups (years) ≤ 15 35.8 0.97 (0.62−1.52) 31.5 1.88 (1.32−2.67)*** 1.21 (0.80−1.84)
> 15 27.8 1 16.6 1 1.94 (1.46−2.56)***
 Bed net use No 48.1 10.53 (6.38−17.40)*** 28.9 3.81 (2.67−5.43)*** 2.28 (1.72−3.03)***
Yes 8.1 1 9.2 1 0.87 (0.51−1.50)
Household-level
 Major material of house Wood/bamboo 30.1 20.6 2.15 (1.16−4.0)* 1.66 (1.31−2.10)***
Brick 31.0 1 12.9 1 3.05 (1.15−8.11)*
 Use of IRS No 42.3 7.78 (4.57−13.25)*** 23.2 2.29 (1.54−3.40)*** 2.43 (1.86−3.17)***
Yes 9.7 1 11.4 1 0.84 (0.47−1.49)
 Elevation of house (m) ≤ 312 35.8 1.15 (0.75−1.76) 24.7 1.56 (1.09−2.23)* 1.71 (1.26−2.31)**
> 312 24.1 1 15.1 1 1.88 (1.30−2.71)**
 Distance to the nearest clinic (m) ≤ 180 21.8 1 12.8 1 1.91 (1.31−2.77)**
> 180 37.9 1.90 (1.16−3.11)* 28.0 2.62 (1.78−3.87)*** 1.57 (1.16−2.13)**
 Distance to the nearest road (m) ≤ 15 33.2 1.16 (0.76−1.78) 22.6 1.48 (1.05−2.08)* 1.21 (1.29−2.26)***
> 15 25.0 1 15.1 1 1.87 (1.24−2.81)**
  1. PCR+ PCR positive, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IRS indoor residual spray
  2. 1Multivariate logistic regression model was used for mixed effected risk factors analysis
  3. 2Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria for predictive factors were compared between rainy season and dry seasons by using the Chi square (χ2) test
  4. P <0.05; ** P <0.01; *** P <0.001