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Table 2 IRS and ITN coverage by household background characteristics

From: A cross-sectional analysis of ITN and IRS coverage in Namibia in 2013

Household characteristics IRS in previous 12 months p-value ITN ownership p-value ITN and/or IRS p-value ITN and IRS p-value
No Yes Don’t know No ITN At least one ITN None ITN and/or IRS One or no interventions Both ITN and IRS
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
Residence type
 Urban 4433 (93.1) 214 (4.5) 113 (2.4) < 0.001 4017 (84.3) 746 (15.7) < 0.001 3782 (81.4) 865 (18.6) < 0.001 4566 (98.3) 81 (1.7) < 0.001
 Rural 3488 (68.6) 1462 (28.8) 132 (2.6)   3456 (68.0) 1627 (32.0)   2588 (52.3) 2362 (47.7)   4257 (86.0) 693 (14.0)  
Wealth quintile
 Lowest 1107 (65.3) 561 (33.1) 28 (1.7) < 0.001 1145 (67.5) 551 (32.5) < 0.001 808 (48.4) 860 (51.6) < 0.001 1426 (85.5) 242 (14.5) < 0.001
 Second 1440 (74.1) 452 (23.3) 52 (2.7)   1388 (71.4) 557 (28.6)   1114 (58.9) 778 (41.1)   1668 (88.2) 224 (11.8)  
 Middle 1634 (81.2) 327 (16.3) 51 (2.5)   1470 (73.1) 542 (26.9)   1265 (64.5) 696 (35.5)   1797 (91.6) 164 (8.4)  
 Fourth 1873 (86.1) 227 (10.4) 76 (3.5)   1727 (79.3) 451 (20.7)   1544 (73.5) 556 (26.5)   1993 (94.9) 107 (5.1)  
 Highest 1867 (92.7) 109 (5.4) 38 (1.9)   1743 (86.5) 272 (13.5)   1639 (83.0) 337 (17.1)   1939 (98.1) 37 (1.9)  
Regional PfPR2–10 (%)
 < 1 3341 (96.4) 41 (1.2) 82 (2.4) < 0.001 3254 (93.9) 213 (6.1) < 0.001 3141 (92.9) 241 (7.1) < 0.001 3374 (99.8) 8 (0.2) < 0.001
 1 to < 5 1137 (79.4) 270 (18.9) 25 (1.8)   870 (60.8) 562 (39.3)   778 (55.3) 629 (44.7)   1213 (86.2) 194 (13.8)  
 > 5 3443 (69.6) 1365 (27.6) 138 (2.8)   3349 (67.7) 1598 (32.3)   2451 (51.0) 2357 (49.0)   4236 (88.1) 572 (11.9)  
EA PfPR2–10 (%)
 < 1 3959 (94.7) 122 (2.9) 100 (2.4) < 0.001 3811 (91.1) 373 (8.9) < 0.001 3639 (89.2) 442 (10.8) < 0.001 4039 (99.0) 42 (1.0) < 0.001
 1 to < 5 721 (66.6) 327 (30.2) 34 (3.1)   560 (51.8) 522 (48.2)   422 (40.3) 626 (59.7)   837 (79.9) 211 (20.1)  
 > 5 3241 (70.8) 1227 (26.8) 111 (2.4)   3102 (67.7) 1478 (32.3)   2309 (51.7) 2159 (48.3)   3947 (88.3) 521 (11.7  
MSP zones
 3 3459 (96.5) 43 (1.2) 83 (2.3) < 0.001 3363 (93.7) 225 (6.3) < 0.001 3249 (92.8) 253 (7.2) < 0.001 3493 (99.7) 9 (0.3) < 0.001
 2 1703 (83.8) 282 (13.9) 48 (2.4)   1629 (80.1) 404 (19.9)   1392 (70.1) 593 (29.9)   1869 (95.5) 89 (4.5)  
 1 2759 (65.3) 1351 (32.0) 114 (2.7)   2481 (58.7) 1744 (41.3)   1729 (42.1) 2381 (57.9)   3434 (83.6) 676 (16.5)  
Total 7921 (80.5) 1676 (17.0) 245 (2.5)   7473 (75.9) 2373 (24.1)   6370 (66.4) 3227 (33.6)   8823 (91.9) 774 (8.1)  
  1. IRS, indoor residual spraying; ITN, insecticide-treated net; PfPR2–10, Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in ages 2–10 years; EA, enumeration area; MSP, Malaria Strategic Plan
  2. p-value corresponds to Chi squared test